Thursday, January 31, 2019
During the 1900s whiley minority and ethnic groups including African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Women valued to turn off that they deserved follow rights, freedom of speech, the right to sexuality preference, and equal interference for women. They formed several organizations under great leaderships during these movements in pasture to courteous rights and equating. Along with great leaders, powerful organizations, and dedicated supporters, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and women were able-bodied to successfully obtain many rights despite changeless opposition. This looks want a strong thesis, but I am a kidnapping stupefy how great leaders, powerful organizations, and dedicated supporters also obtained rights. The sentence is kinda enigmatic as it stands now. You may want to revise to indicate that these were implemental in helping the cause. Then, if you are going to talk about them, that stem should puzzle first in your discussion. African American s were in constant out of bounds of equality through the civil rights movement that began in the 1940s (Roark 843). They fought a crystalisest racial discrimination, segregation laws, and for the right to vote without prejudice. Discrimination led to exclusion from belong to skipper sports teams (Roark 843). During the post war era in 1947, a man by the name of Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play major(ip) conference baseball within an integrated team called the Brooklyn Dodgers (Roark 843). Known as a sports pioneer of the civil rights movement, he led the Dodgers to six study confederation titles and one outstanding World Series despite constant anguish from white players and fans (Roark 843). Several civil rights leaders emerged during this movement (Roark 680). Dr. Ralph David... ...is chairman? If you sincerely desire to forward the interest s of all people, wherefore do you oppose the national enfranchisement of women (Scott 24)? The electri c chair could not respond. The president do a Pro suffrage speech for the women who protested and the next stratum carnal knowledge passed the Nineteenth Amendment giving women the right to vote in the year of 1918(Scott 24). any three minority groups used activities such as demonstrations to theatrical role their opinions and stances to gain equal rights in America. Along with African Americans, Mexican Americans /Chicanos go on to be represented among the poor, and gradually won more political offices, impressive enforcement of anti discrimination legislation, and greater respect for their culture (Roark 915). Mexican American manage African Americans rejected traditional politics in esteem of moderate action (Roark 914). Minority Movements Essay -- Politics, Civil Rights MovementDuring the 1900s many minority and ethnic groups including African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Women wanted to prove that they deserved equal rights, freedom of speech, the right to sexuality preference, and equal treatment for women. They formed several organizations under great leaderships during these movements in order to civil rights and equality. Along with great leaders, powerful organizations, and dedicated supporters, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and women were able to successfully obtain many rights despite constant opposition. This looks like a strong thesis, but I am a bit puzzled how great leaders, powerful organizations, and dedicated supporters also obtained rights. The sentence is rather confusing as it stands now. You may want to revise to indicate that these were instrumental in helping the cause. Then, if you are going to talk about them, that topic should come first in your discussion. African Americans were in constant pursuit of equality through the civil rights movement that began in the 1940s (Roark 843). They fought against racial discrimination, segregation laws, and for the right to vote without prejudice. Discrimin ation led to exclusion from belonging to professional sports teams (Roark 843). During the post war era in 1947, a man by the name of Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play major league baseball within an integrated team called the Brooklyn Dodgers (Roark 843). Known as a sports pioneer of the civil rights movement, he led the Dodgers to six national league titles and one outstanding World Series despite constant harassment from white players and fans (Roark 843). Several civil rights leaders emerged during this movement (Roark 680). Dr. Ralph David... ...is president? If you sincerely desire to forward the interest s of all people, why do you oppose the national enfranchisement of women (Scott 24)? The president could not respond. The president made a Pro suffrage speech for the women who protested and the next year Congress passed the Nineteenth Amendment giving women the right to vote in the year of 1918(Scott 24).All three minority groups used activities su ch as demonstrations to voice their opinions and stances to gain equal rights in America. Along with African Americans, Mexican Americans /Chicanos continued to be represented among the poor, and gradually won more political offices, effective enforcement of anti discrimination legislation, and greater respect for their culture (Roark 915). Mexican American like African Americans rejected traditional politics in favor of direct action (Roark 914).
Fact and Fiction paper 2Psychopathology all(prenominal) single day women are faced with the questions of whether they are pretty enough, closemouthed enough, whether men are attracted to them, whether they rotter be loved or not, and whether deal think they are beautiful. Images of beautiful females are plastered all all over the media, commercials, Internet, movies, TV shows, ad campaigns, etc. In todays monastic order the perfect female proportions are nearly hopeless for one to healthily obtain, but this does not stop women of all ages to going through impossible measures in order to be one step closer to what they address perfection. For many girls all ages, shapes, sizes, around the world, eating disorders are becoming more(prenominal) prevalent for weight loss because of the fact that results occur much swift than a healthy weight loss regiment. Daisy Randone, a character in the movie Girl Interrupted played by Brittany Murphy, is no different. Daisy ever compared her appearance and weight to those of TV actresses, women in the media and models, and found herself to be repulsive. Daisy invariably tried to hide her anorexia from friends, family, nurses and doctors. She soon saw herself developing a really severe case of major depression disorder because of the negative feelings she entangle about herself, her life, and her relationships. Daisys eating disorder was much more presumable to others, that it masked her major depressive disorder that she was also currently struggling with. throughout this paper I will discuss the following topics1.Daisys style and why I believe it reflects this particular disorder2.The definition and account of what anorexia nervosa is.3.The etiology of Daisys specific case of anorexia nervosa.4.... ...eatable, with the right time, effort, and tools one can overcome anorexia and learn to live a normal, healthy lifestyle, where they are quick-witted and proud of their appearance and weight. Works CitedAmerican P sychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC Author.Levenkron, S. (1997). Treating and Overcoming Anorexia Nervosa. New York, NY A Time Warner Company.Dryden-Edwards, R. (n.d.). Anorexia nervosa. Retrieved from http//www.medicinenet.com/anorexia_nervosa/article.htmdictionary.com. In (2009). HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved from http//dictionary.reference.com/browse/stigmaHall, L. (1999). Anorexia Nervosa A Guide to Recovery. Carlsbad, CA Gurze Books.Treasure, J. (1999). Anorexia Nervosa A selections Guide. East Sussex, UK Psychology Press Ltd.
Wednesday, January 30, 2019
As a young child growing up in the African countries of Cameroon and Gabon, I witnessed diseases such as malaria, cholera, tuberculosis, tetanus, and HIV/ help ravage villages and devastate local family members with horrible deaths. This early exposure to such suffering in my life encouraged a strong believe within me to do something useful to battle these horrific diseases.My first instauration to patient care came from voluntary work at local hospitals in Cameroon and in the United States where I worked assisting with patient transportation, providing food and water, and doing necessary tasks need by each patient. This experience helped me develop good communication skills and medical checkup technical skills in the hospital environment. I excessively had the responsibility of pity for a family member with a serious brain injury spare-time activity a car accident.Assisting this family member allowed me to gain awareness of what is required when warmth for patients on a day -to-day basis. These experiences allowed me to realize that not only do patients need research to provide cures for diseases, but that the patients already suffering from diseases also need adequate care. As a junior in the molecular biology course, my long-term goal is to dedicate myself to research in the palm of human biology. In order to achieve this goal, I plan to consume a MD/PhD degree with research focusing on immunology, cardiovascular, or infectious diseases.A MD/PhD degree would enable me to combine my engross in medical patient care with the rewarding challenges of scientific investigation. The SROP program will help me prepare for a MD/PhD program by providing a platform to develop superior problem solving skills, use research techniques, and conduct my own research project. I am located to strive for excellence in all that I do and feel that the SROP program will give me essential tools I need to overlay my quest in developing a career in the operable and th eoretical aspects of the medical research field.
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
April 10, 2007 is a day I bequeath never forget. It was the day I gave race to my son. Beforehand, I thought it would altogether be a piece of cake, besides to my surprise, it was far from that. On my bureau to a routine check-up, it seemed as if all I was able to value about was how bad my back hurt and that I could not abide to have this baby. I arrived at the doctors office and every(prenominal)thing seemed to be running smoothly. I sat in the small, cramped room for what seemed want forever after the nurse had got ex my vitals.The doctor finally came into the room and asked me how I was feeling. I informed her that besides the fact that I was wobbling somewhat and carrying an extra 30 pounds, I snarl just fine. She then looked at me with a facial expression that had me thinking the worse. She informed me that my blood tweet was by dint of the roof and that they would have to induce my labor. There I was, a first time mom about to go through something that I had neve r experienced before. Nervous doesnt even begin to pull back the feelings that I was having at that time and moment.I called my husband and informed him that I was existence sent to the maternity ward. Calling him did not help me to calm down. To be honest, I think I was calmer than he was which was surprising since he had been through this before. Finally, after all the questions and trying to comprehend what was going on, he was on his way. I was finally taken upstairs to the maternity ward and admitted. non too long after arriving, I was given Pytocin to get the contractions started, a drug given to speed up the dilation of the cervix, since there was a chance of my sons heart rate dropping.Shortly after I was examined, I was diagnosed with severe Preeclampsia, a condition in which the blood squeeze is significantly high and chances of seizures and liver failure can occur. Not only was I diagnosed with something that I had never heard of with the potential to become fatal, t he womanhood in the next room over that was actually giving birth at that time was screaming her heart out. I wanted to rack out of that place. I was beyond terrified. I sat there in a daze for almost of the day since I was on so many different medications. You would have never thought that I was in labor because I was hooked up to so many machines.I felt like this was the worst day of my life and swore I would never do it again. The sharp, rushing pains of contractions kept coming, and to me, life as I knew it sucked. Whenever the pain came along, it would be stronger, longer, and more unbearable than the last. This lasted for an eternity in my eyes and I could not wait for it to be over. I eventually made it to the ten centimeters required to deliver. I was almost to the finish line and I was hold for it to be done and over with. With my husband and mother at my side, I felt invincible.They gave me the energy that was necessary to make it through one of the most important days of my life. I had my game face on and naught stood in between me and giving birth to the son I was death to meet. I began to push. The first push and I thought my lungs had collapsed. I was pertinacious to end the long journey I had been on for nine months. With the encourage and last push came a beautiful, little baby boy. All that I had gone through was well worth it and if I had to do it all over again I would. April 10, 2007 was one of the most terrifying but happiest days of my life and I will always remember every detail of it.
Monday, January 28, 2019
through and through the course of the novel, Elizabeth Bennet receives two very different wedding party intentions, and a declaration of do. In chapter 19 Mr. collins give nonices to Elizabeth in his long-winded and parvenue vogue, and in chapter 34 Mr. Darcy makes his own conflicting proposal of br otherhood. In chapter 58 Darcy asserts his roll in the hay for Elizabeth despite her previous rejection of him. From the way each man makes his proposal we learn a great deal more or less their characters, and we see Elizabeths own character reflected in her reaction to each.Even by chapter 19, the endorser has been drawn in to such(prenominal) an extent by these characters that we empathise with them greatly, in particular Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy. The reader identifies particularly with Elizabeth, the protagonist.At the beginning of the novel, long before Collins proposal, we rich soulfulness grown to dislike him. When Collins proposes to Elizabeth, the reader knows that he entrust non be successful. We cave in a distaste for Collins after we argon told he first wanted to marry Jane, but then turned to Elizabeth when he discovered Janes relationship with Bingley. We know he had no affection or attraction to either, so we apply that his private roads towards Elizabeth fail. in front proposing, he effectively asks for permission by informing Mrs. Bennet of his intentions. He planned it out and went about it in such an orderly manner that we imagine that he had rehearsed it. His three discernments for marrying are solely practical I think it a right thing for every clergyman in easy circumstances to set the example of matrimony in his parish. I am sure it will add greatly to my happiness. It is the particular recommendation of the very noble lady Lady Catherine de Bourgh whom I have the honour of work patroness. He is not diverted in cognise.Despite Mr. Collins effrontery of the violence of my affection, he has no true affection or love for Elizabeth, so shows himself to be in unreserved. His snobbery and arrogance are unembellished when he insults Elizabeths family and lack of wealth and uses his connections to the De Bourgh family as a reason to marry him.Elizabeth is amused by the ridiculousness of the situation, but keeps herself composed and distinctly refuses the proposal. It is impossible for me to do otherwise than decline them.Collins is incredulous and tries to dispose himself that she is teasing him. He is condescending and patronizing, and refuses to take her seriously. You are uniformly charming. He reveals his vanity in his premiss she will say yes.Elizabeth viewed marriage as something to be undertaken by two people who were in love. By refusing Collins, she was taking an enormous risk, as no one might ever propose to her again. In the early 1800s marriage was the only way for women in Elizabeths position to provide a secure upcoming for themselves Elizabeths future was in doubt as was her familys estate, Longbourn was entailed. A womans only other options besides marriage were, as women were not permitted to work, to raging with and be dependent upon relatives, e.g. brothers, cousins, married sisters etc. Perhaps if she were swell up amend she might have become a governess.Elizabeths refusal shows her to be a woman with integrity and great tact. She hides her shadeings of distress and diversion, and is polite. When she refuses she is extremely polite, commenting that she is well aware of the honour of your proposals. She is dignified and does not react to Mr. Collins insults about her familys wealth and status, or indeed his willful self-deception when it came to her answer. soon afterwards, Charlotte Lucas, Elizabeths friend, receives an offer of marriage from Collins and accepts. Charlottes view of marriage was more pragmatic marriage was primarily about security love was a secondary criterion. Charlotte certainly did not love Collins it was the hope of pecuniary se curity that attracted her into the marriage, if she were in love with Collins it would only be a luxury. These were the accepted beliefs at the time among the middle and upper crystalisees. Charlotte would dwell a loveless marriage for the hope of financial security.In chapter 34 Darcy makes his first proposal to Elizabeth at Hunsford, the worst possible time for him to do this, as Elizabeth could not have hated Darcy more at this time. She hellish him for the unhappiness of Jane as Darcy had discouraged Bingleys affection towards her, and for that of Wickham, whom she believed had had his inheritance denied to him.Darcy appears greatly agitated when he made his proposal. He enters her room and walks about for a while before speaking, even then to make a hardly a(prenominal) awkward enquiries after Elizabeths health. He was fervently in love with Elizabeth and speaks briefly and passionately. In vain I have struggled. It will not do. My feelings are not to be repressed. You must allow me to tell you how ardently I admire and love you. This outburst is in sharp counterpoint to Collins long pre-planned monologue, and shows true emotion instead of false sentiments of affection. just now Darcy is also strikingly similar to Collins in his arrogant presumption that she will accept him, he spoke of apprehension and anxiety, but his stock warrant expressed real security. His utter bewilderment that she should refuse him no less resentment than surprise. His complexion became pale with anger, and the disturbance of his mind was macroscopic in every feature. This demonstrates the same sort of conceit that Collins displayed.Darcy then goes on to insult her Elizabeths family and circumstances. Could you expect me to rejoice in the low quality of your connections? His insensitivity to Elizabeth is clear he describes his feeling for Elizabeth as against his better judgement, his good sense of her inferiority of its being a degradation of the family obstacles whic h judgment had eternally opposed to inclination. Again he shows himself to be proud, snobbish and superior, like Collins.Elizabeth is flattered ab initio by Darcys attention, she could not be insensible to the compliment of such a mans affection. But Darcys attacks on her self-exaltation provoke her to anger, Elizabeth felt herself growing more angry every moment. This animosity finally climaxes with a severe blow to Darcys upper class sensibilities it spared me the concern in refusing you, had you behaved in a more gentleman-like manner.Darcy is take aback and breach by this accusation. Despite his pride, this causes Darcy to reflect deeply on his behaviour and to stipulate it in future.The two of them leave each other, both of them angry and upset.Elizabeth is shocked by Darcys proposal but keeps her composure and remains dignified. She is sunny and strong-willed in standing up to Darcy. She is not moved by his wealth or status and stays true to her principle of marrying f or love. She does not accept the conventions of her time that it was acceptable to marry for money. She is completely honest and sincere with Darcy, and shows great integrity and independence. Elizabeth however is completely serious when dealing with Darcy, compared with her observe politeness when with Collins, whom she found to be ridiculous.In chapter 58, during a trim down by Darcy and Bingley to Longbourn, Elizabeth and Darcy proclaim their love for each other, and it is understood that they will be married. there is no formal proposal from Darcy the idea of a future marriage is implicit.Elizabeth admits that her feelings have multifariousnessd. She had been blinded by her initial poor first impressions of Darcy, and prejudices produced by her being taken in by Wickhams deception. She admits that she was wrong, She explainedhow all her precedent prejudices had been removed. She is embarrassed by the remarks she made to Darcy during his proposal, do not repeat what I then s aidI have been most heartily disgraced of it.Darcys love was unmoved by Elizabeths rejection he yet wants to marry her. He admits the follies of his past behaviour conceit, arrogance, snobbery. I have been a selfish being all my heart, in practice, though not in principle.We know that Darcy had been transformed. Instead of shunning the Bennets because of Lydias social disgrace, he track down the couple and paid Wickham to marry her, thus rescuing the family from ostracism in society. Furthermore, he seeks amends with Jane by encouraging Bingley to marry her by admitting his see of her affection for him, and his concealment of her visit to London. He is also gracious to the Gardiners when they visit Pemberley, even inviting Mr. Gardiner to accompany him fishing.Darcy explains how he made a conscious effort to change after Elizabeths accusation of ungentleman-like behaviour. This was an uncomfortable justice for Darcy, and the reproach spurred him to change his behaviour. Those were your wordsyou can scarcely conceive how they have tortured me. Before I was reasonable enough to allow their justice.Elizabeth tells us how she began to lose her prejudice after receiving a letter from Darcy explaining his actions in the personal business of Wickham and Jane. Darcy mentioned his letterShe explainedhow gradually all her former prejudices had been removed. She is also pleasantly strike by Darcys civility during her visit to Pemberley, and this too affects a change in her emotions.Each of them has helped the other become a better person we feel the two are right for each other. We feel sure-footed that they will be contented together in married life and grow in mutual love and respect.After the correction of Elizabeth and Darcys faults, the two have earned each other. They deserve a content married life based on mutual devotion and financial security, with which Austen rewards them.I feel that Elizabeth was right to reject Collins his focus on the financial an d practical side of marriage was the antithesis to Elizabeths ideal of love in married life. The marriage would not have been happy for either. I also feel that Elizabeth was right to reject Darcys proposal of marriage. At that time, neither had had the opportunity to change in response to each others criticisms, and as Elizabeth would have accepted his offer of marriage without sincerely yours being in love, we, the reader, would lose respect for her, as would Darcy, and it would appear her interest is fiscal rather than romantic. It would also be an unhappy marriage. I feel that Elizabeth was right to agree to marriage in the end. She had overcome her prejudice, and Darcy his pride, and we know that they are a good match for each other. We hope that they will have a secure and happy married life.
Saturday, January 26, 2019
Existentialism is evenhandedly common in literature, despite being a relatively naked school of thought, and both Demian and Crime and Punishment show existential philosopher traits. This gives individually book non vindicatory a philosophy, plainly overly a certain feeling and brainpower. Existentialism starts that with the idea that existence precedes essence, or purpose. We come emerge into this earthly concern without a purpose, and we simply exist. Our task is to find a purpose. The world around us is an alien chaos, a circus that we stumble with, stressful to find a meaning for our life. In Demian, it is clear that Sinclair does not bang his purpose.His struggle is to find out what it is. Jean-Paul Sartre says, Life has no meaning a priori? its up to you to give it a meaning. Hesse declares that each man had exactly wiz genuine vocation? to find the way to himself?. His task was to discover his take in destiny (Hesse, 132). It is clear, then, that we come int o the world with nothing, no purpose at all. The only genuine task we have is to figure out what we are divergence to do here. According to Existentialism, no one layabout find it for you, and, similarly, no doctrine or philosophy deal find it for you. Sinclair learns these same lessons.Demian pulls Sinclair a calve from mainstream religion early in the account, saying that the division of good and offense has no real meaning. Later, Pistorius tries to teach Sinclair about myriad past religions, but Sinclair rejects him, feeling that he should try to come up with something original instead. throughout the report, Sinclair engages in different mentor-pupil relationships (like his relationships with Demian and Pistorius) but eventually he shrugs those off, taking his friends learning with him and facing the world totally. That is what e trulyone must do, eventually?face the world alone. And alone is exactly how we feel, as we stumble through this circus of a world. Sinclair s pends some of his time not just feeling but also being by himself, adrift. When he leaves his family and his sisters, it does not affect him much(prenominal), if at all, he is so isolated. He connects only with a precious few people, and never for very long. He somehow distances himself from his peers. Even when he was partying and drinking a lot, he found a way to separate himself from them. In that case, it was the role of put forward in his life. Demian is a story about one mans journey.The ratifier never really learns the story of any other character, not even Demian himself, who remains something of an enigma to the very end. This puts the story in an existentialist mindset. Sinclair is drifting through a swirling, gray mass of humanity. Alone is also how we must act. Jean-Paul Sartre says, It is only in our decisions that we are important, and, We must act out passions before we can feel it. This pretty closely mirrors the sentiment presented when Pistorius says, You can t consider prohibited anything that the soul desires (Hesse, 116).It is only when we make our own decisions and act for ourselves that what we do has meaning. Hesse puts the existentialist framework to work for him by function it to highlight the need for independence and spiritual self-reliance. Dostoyevsky, on the other hand, uses the mindset to facilitate Raskolnikovs downward mental spiral, highlight his aloofness, and pull the story along. The world of St. Petersburg is, without a doubt, a strange and hostile place for Raskolnikov. He stumbles along and things eternally happen around him. He repeatedly wakes up with people in his room.He sees things in the street, such as the boozy rape victim early in the story, or a attached Marmeladov, that cause him to lose his cool. More and more, he finds himself doing crazy things without regard for logic or even common sense. People in this world booze him. He has no idea what they are up to, and he is constantly paranoid that peo ple are plotting against him. His guilty, delirious inner world combines with the crazy, higgledy-piggledy outer world to make Raskolnikov into a raging, feverish, maniac. He is not just any raging, feverish, maniac, though. He is an aloof raging, feverish, maniac.He considers himself better than those around him, and his sea captain mentality drives his antisocial behavior. His antisocial behavior, in turn, gives the character and story a feeling of being alone. Not only is the world crazy, but also Raskolnikov is separated from it and everyone in it, at least until the very end of the book. He is isolated, so much so that at times he can feel it clearly with every fiber of his being that he could never again address these people (Dostoyevsky, 122). Finally, Dostoyevsky uses this chaotic world to drive his story along.Things are constantly happening by coincidence, and Dostoyevsky moves the plot forwards at a dizzying pace, forcing Raskolnikov to act. It is fantastic that Raskoln ikov should happen upon Marmeladov soon after he is injured, and that Raskolnikov should collect people discussing the very same murder that is on his mind, and that someone should listen on him and hear his confession. The frenzied plot makes it much easier for both Raskolnikov and the reader to slip into a mania, which is surely Dostoyevskys aspiration. The philosophy of existential philosophy, too, plays a part in Crime and Punishment.Sartre says that the only true goal of our lives is that which we set for ourselves. Raskolnikov, through the main portion of the story, has no clear goal. He wavers between wanting(p) to turn himself in and trying to avoid suspicion. Sartre says, Man can ordain nothing unless he has first understood that he has no other aim than the one he sets himself, and it is clear that Raskolnikovs will is pretty much useless. He can effect no real change in either himself or in his surroundings until he finally picks a goal and follows through with it.H is personal development is completely halted during his entire patch of indecision. Only in the epilogue do we see him lay out to change, begin to forsake his philosophy of the superman, find happiness, and fall in love. The philosophy of existentialism was around long before anyone gave a name to it, as is certify by Dostoyevskys St. Petersburg, the perfect example of an existentialist world. Both Dostoyevsky and Hesse use existentialist ideas help them express their points. Andrew Holbrook, 2006.
Friday, January 25, 2019
primitively c onlyed the Swallow Side Car Company, painter Cars was founded in 1922 and became famous for its high life and sports railroad cable cars. In 1990, Jaguar was taken over by Ford and is forthwith a wholly owned subsidiary. At the time of the Ford takeover, Jaguars attribute exploit was something of a paradox. Aesthetically and in legal injury of on-the-road performance the cars were often highly regarded, especially by a demanding core of enthusiasts. Yet even they could not ignore Jaguars re governation for making cars which were, in comparison to its rivals, of exceptionally poor reliability. Plagued by under- intrustment and a conservative technical-led, rather than customer-led, culture, the partnerships old plants were attempt to achieve even acceptable levels of conformance fictional character.At this time, the JD Power batch of customer satisfaction of cars imported to the US ranked only atomic number 53 car (the Yugo) lower than Jaguar. All this cha nged through the 1990s. The company invested heavily in training, especially in quality techniques such as statistical butt against control (see Chapter 17). Piecework was abolished, as was clocking in and a general point of intersectioniveness bonus introduced which support flexible working.Other shop floor initiatives include the introduction of multiskilled teams, total productive maintenance (see Chapter 19), continuous improvement teams (see Chapter 18) and benchmarking against the high hat in the business (see Chapter 18). The success of this quality improvement programme was dramatic. It encouraged Ford to invest in new Jaguar models and to a fault had a significant impact on customer satisfaction. The same surveys which once put Jaguar at the bottom of the league now rank it in the very top group of luxury car makers.Jaguar regains its write upAnswer1.What does quality mean for a motor vehicle producer such as Jaguar?This box highlights how Jaguar have constantly been regarded as excellent at some aspects of quality (such as performance and aesthetics) but very poor at other (such as product reliability). This gives us a clue as to the various dimensions of quality which ar important to Jaguar. They ar as follows. Performance The speed, power, cornering and other aspects of the way the car drives. Fast speed, powerful acceleration, responsive handling, and so on atomic number 18 for the most part regarded as the mark of a prestige car. Aesthetics The overall way of the car should job its values. A Jaguar is smooth, luxurious, dashing and sporty The pigment question for Jaguar is does the overall appearance and shape of the car reflect these values and appeal to its target customers? Equipment Is the car equipped with the type of things matchless would expect from a luxury car such as trounce seats, global position system equipment, adjustable headlights and so on? fill in Are the viewable areas of the car free from any marks or blemish? This means an absence of scratches or small marks as well as an appropriate surface finish to all visible surfaces. Build quality This normally refers to how the car feels as doors open and close, windows are raised and lowered and so on. Is there a satisfying substantiality about the feel of the car? Reliability When in use does the car (or some part of the car) break down? Do things go wrongly? After sales service Should the owner have any problems or wishes to know something more about the car, is it easy for him or her to do so?All of these can be expanded considerably but the heel does give an overall indication of the very many dimensions of quality which are important to Jaguar.2.How did the changes which Jaguar made to its operations practice affect the quality of its products?The changes made by Jaguar (at least those described in the box) were all to the processes within the operation. For example, Training would equip operators with the skills to assembl e the car in the clear manner without making mistakes. Statistical Process Control (covered in Chapter 17) would alter the operators to make sure that shopfloor processes operating as they should be an preferably improving. changing the payment system both encouraged operators to learn more skills and prevents them sacrificing quality in order to earn higher wages in the abruptly term. Multi-skilled teams would allow any absent workers to be covered for by plurality with equivalent skills and, more importantly, encourage continuous improvement to production processes. exclusively productive maintenance, improvement teams and benchmarking would likewise allow everyone working at the company to contribute to the general improvement effort.All these changes were important but it is also vital to realise that, without the necessary investment, the changes in Jaguar would have been toilsome or even impossible. Yet these issues are connected. It was the success of the companys management in starting these changes which encouraged the parent group (Ford) to invest considerable sums of money in the company, which in turn allowed the changed described preceding(prenominal) to have a real impact.
Wednesday, January 23, 2019
In measure for measure there atomic number 18 cardinal characters that at branch glance strikem to be from two different worlds b arely a closer analysis shows that they are actu eachy very similar. This is the case with Angelo and Isabella. When we runner meet Angelo we see a ruthless leader who enforces the law as severely as he sess and Isabella is the complete opposite, she is a clean and chaste young fair sex who was ready to devote her life to God. two Angelo and Isabella have strict moral views they twain exhibit pride and are guilty of self deception.In scene, when Isabella and Angelo first meet straight extraneous we can distinguish the similarities surrounded by them. For example, Isabella uses the aforementioned(prenominal) language as Angelo and the two of them are able to finish each others sentences indicating that they are on the same thinking level and that they are actually not that different as twain knew what the other was int polish offing on sayin g. Isabella like Angelo is denying her sexuality. Isabella uses religion as a repression of sexuality where as Angelo represses his sexuality by enforcing harsh rules in capital of Austria regarding fornification and does not allow himself to express any feelings openly.One could argue that both Angelo and Isabella are sexually frustrated. Isabella is a pure and chaste young woman who happens to be in a corrupted society and it could be argued that her ratiocination to join the nunnery was a way of life of sexual chair and that she does not sureness herself in the society that she is in and needs restraint nevertheless sort of wishing a more strict restraint (14,L3). Angelo is a prude and as a puritan he has to be able to control his sexuality which is why he doesnt express he desires or emotions and this leads to characters describing him as a man whose blood is very snow broth and in his soliloquy Angelo cant describe what he is feeling towards Isabella because he was never able to speak aside openly about sex, emotions, love etc. Whats this? Whats this? (22, L 164) .For both of these characters repressing their sexuality discourages the audience from identifying with them.Another similarity that Angelo and Isabella both share is that they are put in a sordid point by the Duke. The Duke put Angelo in charge of power whilst he left over(p) knowing full well that Angelo is a man made out of steel and will enforce the strict laws and as a get out Claudio was condemned for fornification by Angelo who led to Isabella pleading for his life. The Duke is the nevertheless character who could intervene precisely chose not to. Isabella and Angelo are both troubled characters struggling to come to harm with their own inner nature. Both characters share their feelings and thoughts with he audience in soliloquy. Angelo (22) and Isabella (24) this is the only time that the audience can begin to understand these characters more and are able to empathise with t hem.One could argue that another distinction both of these characters share is hypocrisy Angelo is an authoritive figure but does not drill what he preaches. He is a hypocritical character because he is denounce Claudio for fornification whilst going against his own law by asking Isabella to sleep with him.Similarly, Isabella quickness to realize away another persons chastity (Marianna) is quite hypocritical because she refused to come apart up her own chastity because it was not morally right but was quite eager for Marianna to give up hers. It could also be argued that both Angelo and Isabella are selfish characters. Angelos selfishness is evident in the way he derelict Marianna due a lack of dowry and Isabellas selfishness is evident in the way she was prepared to value her own virginity more than her brothers life and the fact that she wanted Marinna to give up her virginity could also be seen as a selfish act.Both Isabella and Angelo are proud characters. Angelo is a pr oud man because he will not back down from enforcing the severe laws in capital of Austria even when Isabella pleads with him to spare her brothers life. I think Angelo feels that if he backs down thus people will begin to take advantage of him as they did with the Duke so I think he feels its imperative to be proud and venerable because that is the only way people will know you mean descent and will look up to you. Isabella is a proud character in the sense that she would rather her brother lost his life rather than her give up her virginity to save him. To Isabella honour and pride means more than bringing her own flesh and blood. Die, perish.not words to save theeIn conclusion, galore(postnominal) critics have noted the similarity between Isabella and Angelo D.L Stevenson in his book, The Achievements of Measure for Measure, Ithaca 1966 notes the similarities between Angelo and Isabella, He claims She is kind of observe of Angelo the play is only allowed to come to an end on ly at the moment of exact equivalence between Isabella and Angelo. It only ends s when Isabella has really become the thing she has argued for in Act II, merciful (against all sense the duke points out). What D.L Stevenson is arguing here is that in a sense Isabella looked up to Angelo because he was this authorative male figure but Isabella is also a wholesome female who was able to withstand pressure from this authoritive male figure.I consort with D.L Stevenson, I think that Isabella does look up to Angelo because he is a proud, authoritive macrocosm and I think in a way Isabella actually see a bit of herself in Angelo in the sense that neither of them can express themselves sexually as freely as they would have want to therefore they resort to extreme situations to avoid confronting their true inner selves. They are both proud yet hypocritical characters who dont see any treat in their own actions but are quick to blame others, for Isabella a prime example is when Claudio a sked her to give up her virginity and she was outraged by what he suggested O you beast, O faithless coward, O, dishonest wretch but yet she expected Marianna to do the exact thing she refused to do.
Monday, January 21, 2019
Confucius and Plato Editor survey Wolf, at the beginning of the essay Confucius and Plato A Few Really grievous People, poses the question What is the best way to create a strong monastic instal? (Wolf 25) It was surprising to a novice student of philosophy how similar the ideas of the quaint Chinese sage Confucius and famous Greek philosopher Plato were. Although, Confucius and Plato both(prenominal) made study contri exceptions to the development of society, they showed both similarities and differences in these three subjects judgment class, education, and opinion in military personnel.Confucius and Plato both believed virtue and intelligence were key components to creating a strong society. Confucius ideal anyone who has been educated had the capability to develop into a ruler. Whereas Plato assumed anyone could be educated, but only a few, those in the ruling class had the ability to causa and thus were qualified to rule. In addition, Plato gave credence to the ide a of being innate(p) into the ruling class, that the quality to reason was an inherited quality. Confucius and Plato were both strong believers that order was a nonher main factor in a strong society.Although they both had laws to maintain the order, Plato had less faith in tidy sum in widely distributed to behave in a civilized manner. Both Confucius and Plato were in regard of education and were teachers themselves. Confuciuss followers were the ones who wrote the Analects, which talked about how civilization depends on humanity and propriety. Plato actually wrote The Republic which talked about his ideal philosopher-king. Plato established the Academy, which taught principles of ethical motive and government, for 900 years. Confucius attempted to teach the ruler to become a better person, but failed.The concepts put forth by Confucius and Plato begin to differ more when faith in humanity comes into play. Confucius and Plato both wanted to think there was technical in everyone , but Confucius believed more in a society in which human relationshipsespecially those within the familywere more important than laws. (Wolf 27) Plato concluded that the great deal needed to be controlled for there to be order. That control was maintained through and through the law. They both sought out peace and harmony, although Confucius focused more on the behavior of individuals and Plato was interested in universal truth even though it probably would not be accepted,.Plato felt that if a person essay to bring enlightenment to the masses they would probably try to kill to him for tattle such tall tales, disrupting their lives and challenging their accustomed beliefs. (Wolf 31) Even today, most people would agree with Confucius and Plato about the importance of educating people in the development of a strong society. The idea of relationships as the basis of society may be summed up in Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. This well-disposed Rule seems to be as important to Western society as it was to Chinese society. However, the idea of a better quality of citizen that is better conform to to lead society smacks of elitism and would definitely not be accepted in modern democracies. However, that does not mean that the elite educated class from Harvard and Yale has not been overrepresented in American leadership. So perhaps we have a ruling elite, but not as overt as Plato would like. A net thought from the essay would be a harmonious and orderly mankind is important to all societies.
A taboo subject is a subject that commonwealth atomic number 18 embarrassed or find difficult to talk ab out(p). finis is a taboo subject because most quite a little are frighten of expiry and dont want to near it. Usually, when people are talking about taboo subjects, they be it sizable die than it is. This is cal lead a euphemism. Lee third house makes it acceptable in many ways. The first affaire is that end is introduced very early on (the first page) so the sense of hearing wont be surprised by it later on, the shortsighted lady who discovers so well If I could ever grow up.I would .do the end Also death is introduced with the opera to make death wait beautiful and like an art. The opera is played at various stoppages throughout the play to keep the theme of the staged and beautiful opera going. Spoonface considers she understands death, and the dying makes me so clear which makes the sense of hearing feel better because she feels she fucks what is happenin g barely isnt scared at all. She has a tikelike attitude and isnt embarrassed to talk about anything. She says everything exactly how it is so the hearing know exactly whats going on.She doesnt use euphemisms to make things sound better than they are, I was backwards And now I was going to die. The audience now know that spoonface knows she is going to die. Normally this could be quite an upsetting for the audience because no one likes to hear about people dying barely spoonface doesnt take care to mind therefore the audience are made to believe that the fact spoonface is dying is not similarly central. Later on in the play, Spoonface, her mum and her dad find out that she can do numbers.They think that she is a genius which is effective because then there isnt the feeling that Spoonface is extremely unfortunate and aught ever goes right for her. The audience now know that Spoonface has got her own special(a) thing that she is better at than most people which could make t he audience less(prenominal) upset about her condition. Spoonface is not scared of death because she believes that when she dies, she go out go to heaven as she believes in God, God came and touched me on my head.This faith she has makes the death seem a lot less worse because the audience know she believes in life after death and spoonface doesnt seem to mind about the fact she is dying. Because Spoonface doesnt seem to mind dying, the audience could get mixed feelings. Either they feel better because she doesnt mind dying or they feel worse because they think Spoonface doesnt understand what dying is. When Spoonface goes into the hospital, Doctor Bernstein talks openly about the holocaust and concentration camps and spoonface interprets it into her own words quite graphically.This puts Spoonfaces condition into sight and sort of makes the audience feel more sympathetic towards Doctor Bernstein rather than having everyone focusing their attention on Spoonface. This doesnt actual ly make death more bearable, it just gives the audience something tragic to think about to make Spoonface seem less unfortunate. Another thing is the slight humour of the play. It moldiness have been a hard subject to put humour into but Lee Hall did this very well. An example of this humour is when Spoonface gives her list, I was hypothetical to die and we had fish fingers. Spoonface thinks that having fish fingers for dinner is just as important as the fact she will die. Everyone knows that these two facts are not as important as each other and that having fish fingers is not authentically important at all. Because Spoonface thinks these things are of equal importance, the audience are led to think that death is not really important either. Lee Hall has written this play through the perspective of a naive child (Spoonface) so he can say whatever he wants and be as blunt as he wants. There are layers of import throughout the play because of Spoonfaces naivety.At the end of the p lay, Spoonface talks about the visible lights. This is her conceit of the story of life and death. She believes it is her destiny to be the way she is and that she has found her spark and that once you find the spark there isnt any point in you being alive. The audience think that she has completed what she was put on the earth to do therefore she isnt really needed. The final point is that after reading the play, the audience gain better awareness and misgiving of the play and it may alter peoples perspective on life and could make more people be happy to be alive.
Sunday, January 20, 2019
Throughout this actors line, Steve Jobs masteryfully convinces the multicultural graduate population at the Stanford University gradation to be preeminent in carriage and to pursue their passions by relaying deuce-ace somebodyal stories in a symmetrical structure that en fittings ruth to be clearly developed. In nearly of todays arguments, facts are pr peerless to support a claim that is being made by soul how eer, in Steve Jobs speech, he presents only his individual(prenominal) opinion and a myopic a bit of hi recital as evidence. yet though this is whole he has to offer to his reference, it make outs rhetorical endureing in his ethos. Through his stories, he creates a persona for himself.He elucidates himself seem like a person who carried on even in his darkest of times and as well as someone who had suppress the many obstacles he faced and when things did non look so dandy. turn trying to t each(prenominal) the earshot that failure tail assembly sometimes be right, these are important characters of the persona that he will establish passim his speech. He is existn as a successful man and mathematical function model to many people in the world. While he develops this persona, it each(prenominal)ows him to make a plug inion with his earreach on a level modality beyond what he expects. Jobs breaks it d sustain into stories, but what he very wants the earreach to see is that his conduct went okay, and thus things took a wrong turn, and then everything began to exculpate up and get a lot better. Things were better than he ever would study imagined. Throughout his speech, the ups and downs are repeated patterns that he conveys in his stories and in like manner in his livelihood.Ive neer calibrated from college. Truth be told this is the side by side(predicate) Ive ever gotten to a college graduation, is what Steve Jobs confesses immediately after he begins his speech to the graduating class of Stanford University. You w ould think that for a college graduation commencement, you would want someone who could occupy educationally to the audience to send the graduates off, but on this day Steve Jobs was not that person. He did not fit the norm of being a college graduate. later he makes a statement on how he never rattling graduated from college, he strongly compliments his audience, coition them how honored he is to be able to give this speech to one of the finest universities in the world.He reels the audience in by telling them that he never graduated college which gives the graduates a sense of accomplishment. Jobs however, only completed six months of school at Reeds College. Before this time, he was very unsure if notwithstandinging his college calling would better his future in any look. But coincidentally, he pertinacious to stick around and take classes that he thought were interesting for another(prenominal) eighteen months. Throughout his speech, he covers his difference experie nces with the audience, and they all seem to share a very common theme. This theme being the pursuit of happiness. Jobs effectively connects with the audience by saying this and using ruth. He communicates this message by using cause and effect analysis, contrast, and personal anecdotes.In his first footling story, Steve Jobs tells the audience Again, you cannot connect the dots looking forward you can only connect them looking backwards. In this story, Jobs does a magnificent job when using his rhetorical methods. He uses anaphora, ruth, and apostrophe by repeating the devise connecting the dots throughout his story. He elicits condolence from the audience when he discusses his childhood and being adopted. This technique he uses gives the story a great meaning, and it also allows the audience to defer meaningful application. Even though his biological parents could not provide for him and raise him the way they treasured to on their own, they did however square up a well-ed ucated family that could provide for him, so that he would be an educated young man. He tells them how seventeen long time later he makes the decision to go to college, then humorously says how he felt that he wasted all of his parents savings just to be in school for such(prenominal)(prenominal) a short time. His inclusion of such an emotional and impecunious background as a child born(p) to a young woman out-of-wedlock, studys that even the well-nigh underprivileged students lives can reach success. He ends his story by giving the graduates a piece of advice that transitioned perfectly with the next story he tells. So you start to blaspheme that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something. Your gut, destiny, life, and karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.I didnt have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends rooms, I returned coke bottles for the five-cent deposits to buy su stenance with, and I would walk the seven miles across town every sunlight night to get one good repast a hebdomad at the Hare Krishna Temple, Jobs explains to his audience. here(predicate) he gets into the lows of life and how it wasnt all peaches and cream for him when he dropped out. The personal experiences in his speech help to create and develop his individuality. He uses pathos to get the audience to understand he had at presenthere to sleep, barely had food and money, and only got one good meal a week. I am sure to the audience it may have seemed somewhat strange and out of the ordinary for him to be mentioning such a stage in his life that would that would imply he lived the life of a vagabond. That is how Jobs would pull in the audience by telling such a touching story. It just shows that even the almost successful people could decrease from the slums and become something just by breathing out their dreams.As Jobs gets further along into his speech he starts off a sentence saying, If I never dropped in on that single course in college, the mack would never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts.If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on that calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Jobs talks to his audience rough how at this time in his life, he still really never had an idea about how the things he had learn would factor into his life. Here he uses logos as inductive reasoning. While being in the calligraphy classes, Jobs talks about the different types of fonts that he learned about and also how he learned the history behind them as well. He uses the Rule of 3 as his rhetoric device here. I learned about serif and sans-serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space in the midst of different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great (Jobs).With emotions and Im sure a heavy flavor, Jobs says to the graduates I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. Here, Job evokes pathos and ethos from the audience. He uses pathos when explaining how he and a friend of his took this garage project and transformed it into a two one thousand million dollar troupe .that now has 4,000 people take shapeing for it. He appeals to the audiences emotions when he tells them about his fall from his very own business and the Apple batting order of Directors grace. After the release of the first Macintosh, he was dismissed from his company because his position as the CEO of Apple was terminated, and he tells how devastated he was by this. The focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating (Jobs).He states his beliefs in such a blunt manner that everyone in attendance of this commencement is confident to understand and relate to what he went through and felt. The heart knows where to go and what to do is what he tells these Stan ford graduates and the most important thing he needed his audience to do was to follow their intuition and their feelings. ..Turned out that acquire fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me (Jobs). In the next five years after he was fired from his company Apple, his creative thoughts began to conjure and he started two new companies NeXT and Pixar. Pixar became one of the most world renowned animation studios. But he did not stop there, after creating Pixar he created the first animation movie encounter Story. This movie is a widely known success amongst many ages and generations of children and adults today. too during this time he met the issue of his life, I fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife Laurene and I have a beautiful family together (Jobs). He yet again uses pathos with the audience to show how even though he was going through a bad time in his life, he still was able to recover his true love, and I am sure by th em finding each other, this pushed him to do greater things.Ironically, Apple bought NeXT, and it is the heart of Apples on-line(prenominal) renaissance. Steve Jobs ends this short story with yet another inspirational quote for his audience. He tells them Sometimes lifes going to hit you in the notch with a brick. Dont lose faith. Im convince that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did. Youve got to find what you love. His success shows that the adversity makes the students and himself better and stronger than anything that they will ever face. Jobs explanation of his journey after being fired makes him an example of hard work as a precursor to success. My third story is about death. The phrase is short, simple, polished, and quite frankly to the point. It shows his form of this story. His short and simple way of communicate portrays honesty and builds the logos of his commencement. By making this simple statement to his audience About a year ago I was d iagnosed with cancerthis was for sure a type of cancer that is incurable, Jobs makes a personal and emotional tie-up with his audience. Seeing that there are possibly some audience members who have gone through the same thing as he or have experienced the same thing with someone else. Here, Jobs is using pathos to tap into the audiences feelings of sympathy.He then develops his ethos with the audience and then explains that he has faced adversity in the form of sickness as well as other things. He comes off as a strong man who has conquered his challenges. This was proof of his strength and what he endured. Your time is particular so dont waste it living someone elses life. Jobs uses his near death experience story as a way to inform the Stanford graduates that life is too short. He uses pathos here as well when he is talking about the audience pursuance their hearts. remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know how to avoid the trap of thinking you have som ething to lose. You are already naked. in that respect is no reason not to follow your heart. Jobs is stating that the consequences of these many graduates not living to the best of their ability after graduation, are much greater than if they did when following their real passions. Even people who want to go to heaven do not want to die in order to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. Here it shows Jobs philosophical take on death. Having experienced such a traumatic thing in his life it recreated his personal status on it. Being diagnosed with cancer and seeing his life change right before his eyes made him change the life around him.He made the best of his time, and now he is telling the graduates to do the same thing. He uses very candidly and sagacious course to show his audience (the graduates) that eventually they will die so now is the time to live it up and live it to the fullest with the time that they have left. The most important decision Jobs tell s them they can make right now is to find whatever it is they love and to pursue it to the best of their ability whenever the time comes to do so. If the graduates follow their passions and do what their heart and mind lead them to do, their lives will be very sufficient and excellent in every way possible. By making these statements to his audience, he acquires warrant. Warrant is the rhetorical device that makes his speech such an advantageous one. The relationship he creates between his audience and himself is a gibe experience. Through his straightforward statements, words, and visible proof he encourages the audience of graduates that success is attainable when you follow your passions and desires. They have to live without regrets. continue Hungry. mystify paradoxical (Jobs). Jobs defines his hardship when he relates to that quote. Here he yet again uses pathos of a childhood memory of a quote in a magazine to connect with his audience.This is the last thing that Jobs wants to leave with the graduates as he comes to a close in his commencement speech. He explains to them about a magazine that he use to read as a child. As he describes it When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole soil Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. Jobs begins to tell them the meaning that this magazine and quote was to him, he explicitly tells them about the last issue they ever made and the impact it would dramatis personae on him for the rest of his life. Here he gives them a mental visual of the last issue. He goes into detail about how the picture on the back of the magazine had an early country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous (Jobs). Beneath it read the words Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. He gives this sense of ethos when he describes this to them. Jobs masterfully directs his audiences minds to constantly be curious and to stay more importantly humble, so they will follow the ir hearts and love the life that is ahead of them.Steve Jobs Commencement oral communication at Stanford University is considered a very effective speech because of his use of the rhetorical devices. He uses many of them such as pathos, ethos, logos, apostrophe, and many others. His use of rhetorical approaches is not the one and only thing that makes his speech one of the most successful ones. Jobs was able to relate successfully to the audience and was also able to relax them with his humor and laid-back grace and comments about his very own personal stories and life. By the end of the speech, Jobs connected very well with his audience, and they also had a better appreciation for who Steve Jobs was and who Steve Jobs was still becoming. Jobs use of structural repeating and his connection of emotional anecdotes encourages the audience (Stanford Graduates) to pursue their dreams and passions.His methodology as an orator throughout the time he sets up his ethos, logos, and pathos of his advice are subtle. Jobs pathos adds to this heart-wrenching rhetoric. In addition, he also uses his three emotionally charged stories to show his high character and qualified eligibility to be giving the graduates advice about their lives and how they should never second guess anything that they do. The words he chooses are just elegant and simple and portray honesty, as well as intellectualism. But most importantly Jobs leaves these many graduates off with these short, simple and encouraging words. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.Works CitedJobs, Steve. Commencement Address at Stanford University. Graduation. Stanford University Auditorium, Palo Alto. 12 June 2005. Speech.
Saturday, January 19, 2019
The purpose of this lab was to investigate and discover the carnal and chemical properties of some shove alonges. Through give away this lab the abi literaturey to identify if and when gasses were consecrate was enhanced.During the first step of this lab, when obtaining the hydrogen from the mossy surface and the hydrochloric sour, it took a distribute longer than I thought it would for the water in the pipet to be displaced. I was tempted to remove the s maskingper and add another piece of zinc and see if that would make it go accelerated, but I did not need to interrupt the process. It seemed the longer that the mossy zinc was exposed to the hydrochloric acid the faster it dissolved and therefore more gas was produced. When the atomic number 25 and the hydrogen bleach were exposed to each other there was much more sparkle produced than that of the zinc and the hydrochloric acid. I was surprised (although I dont eff why) that the lime water turned cloudy when exposed to breath. It is quite innocent when you think about it that when you exhale you release carbon dioxide which as shown in the above data turns the lime water cloudy.Conclusion/Discussion During the rails of this lab I learned a lot about the coevals of gases. I was somewhat conf spendd in the beginning about how to use some of the equipment for this lab. As the lab went on I figured it out and became much more comfortable with it. I thought some of the experiments were very(prenominal) informative and interesting. I especially liked the portions about reactions with a lit match or the glowing splint as it showed on a small scale if the gas produced was flammable or not.Questions A. Give dickens reasons why we fill the gas generator test tubes almost to the top with chemicals.1. The first reason we fill the test tubes almost to the top with chemicals is so that the reaction between the two substances is high enough to the top to go through the rubber stopper and displace the water in the pipet and trap the gas.2. The second reason is so that observations can be do easily about the reactions. If it was not almost completely filled we whitethorn book had to try to pick up the test tube or remove the tissue paper to make observations and this may have altered the results.B. What happens to the zinc in the hydrogen generation experiment?The zinc begins to behind dissolve when exposed to the hydrochloric acid. The longer the zinc was submerged in the hydrochloric acid the faster it seemed to dissolve.C. What happens to the manganese in the oxygen generation experiment?The manganese produced large amounts of fizzing when exposed to the hydrogen peroxide. It was difficult to tell whether the manganese was actually dissolving or just fizzing.D. Write a equilibrate equation for the reaction between O2 and H2.2H2 + O2 2H2OE. What is the function/purpose of the bromothymol down(p) in the CO2 experiment?The purpose of the bromothymol blue was to show the reaction o f the chemicals and the gas that was formed. Since the bromothymol blue changed from blue to yellow, that signified that the gas formed was acerb.F. Bromothymol blue is blue in the presence of basic etymons, and yellow in the presence of acidic solutions. If your solution is a murky green, what might you assume about the solution?I would assume one of two things. There may have possibly been a contamination of the substance. The other possibility might be that the pH of the solution is neutral. If the bromothymol blue turns a murky green excuse this may indicate that the substance is neither basic or acidic.
Thursday, January 17, 2019
1.Michael Moores movie Sicko is so controversial because it scrams peck think. He went to Cuba and showed it, not as this horrible place that weve all be told but as a caring country willing to supporter our citizens. This movie proving that general Healthc are works in other countries makes flock wonder why it has to be so difficult to have it here. The Unites States is allege to be the most powerful country and yet so legion(predicate) Americans feel powerless when it comes to wellnesscare.2.Some pros for Universal Healthcare are everyone would be covered. pot would be healthier and live lasting. Our poverty rate wouldnt be as high because people wouldnt be losing their homes because of medical bills. It would make businesses more productive because they wouldnt have to carry insurance.Some cons for Universal healthcare are higher taxes. There is a longer cargo deck for surgeries. All the people that work for the insurance companies would lose their jobs.3.Some relative c hanges in healthcare because of the Universal Healthcare Bill are not having to conceal or being denied because of a pre-existing condition. You will no longer have a higher rate because of your health status. Insurance companies wouldnt be able to cancel your policy due to an adverse health condition. Children will be covered under their parents insurance policies until they are 27. peeled plans must cover check ups and preventative care with out co-pays.4.Most Americans are concerned about the virgin law requiring almost everyone to have insurance. A lot of people simply cant afford it although the new law is suppose to make it more affordable. Another concern is await time to see a doctor. With more people seeing doctors there will be a longer wait time to run short in and the less time the doctor has to spend with you in the room.
Wednesday, January 16, 2019
The Philippines is a religion-based country. Filipinos are broad-minded most specially in distinguishing what is right and what is wrong. Their philosophy is centrally base in The al-Quran with conformance to their religion. But, the government is greatly alarmed because of the continuous rise of the crime lay in the country. This issue became a reason for reinstating remainder Penalty as a law in the Justice system of the Philippines. According to one and only(a) of the sites made by Pearson, the worlds largest integrated education, devastation Penalty is the infliction of ending upon a person by udicial process as a penalization for an offence.Nearly 60 countries are still implementing devastation Penalty. Some of these are China, fall in States, North and South Korea and China. On the other hand, 137 countries, including Philippines, have outlawed Death Penalty. The Philippine Government had made a lot of hearings to discuss whether Death Penalty should be rein pronounc ed or not. Theoretical politicians demanded to revive Death Penalty in the Philippine Justice system for they think it would minify the number of crimes in the country.Philosophical politicians and the Church firmly do not want to return Death Penalty as a law here in the country. Death Penalty as a law in the Philippine Justice System for we a religion oriented and The Bible told us that killing other people is immoral. A death penalty is the sentence of execution for murder and some other capital crimes (serious crimes, especially murder, which are punishable by death). The death penalty, or capital penalization, whitethorn be prescribed by Congress or any state legislature for murder and other capital crimes.The Supreme Court has govern that the death penalty is not a per se violation of the ordinal Amendments ban on cruel and unusual punishment. Furthermore, the Sixth Amendment does not drive a Jury trial in capital crime cases. On 15 April 2006, the sentences of 1 ,230 d eath row inmates were commuted to life durance, in what oblivion International believes to be the largest ever commutation of death sentences Capital punishment was again suspended via Republic Act No. 9346, which was signed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on 24 June 2006.The bill followed a vote held in Congress earlier that month which overwhelmingly supported the abolition of the practice. The penalties of imprisonment and reclusion perpetua (indeterminate sentence, 30-year minimum) replaced the death penalty. Critics of Arroyos initiative called it a political move meant to placate the papistical Catholic Church, some sectors of which were increasingly vocal in their opposition to her rule. implementation of Death Penalty in the Philippines By Jokolateee
Tuesday, January 15, 2019
A report to the Board of Directors at Ennismore Capital Regarding the Expansion Idea at Hoxton Hotel
AbstractThe hotel application has gained more popularity over the young decades in most parts crossways the globe. London, like other(a) cities has manifested slicked competition among several(predicate) hotels in offering heights quality operate, including meals and registration to both local and transnational customers.Hoxton has been a top rank hotel in London, with near of the surveys ranking it the best for cardinal consecutive years. The hotel is under the c ar of enthusiastic and goal-oriented team (Ennismore swell), characterised by the invariable ambition to grow into a larger hotel constancy. Having proposed the refinement intellect to the Hoxton Manager, in that respect is need to conduct a critical review of the idea and render the most informed testimonial to warrant the implementation of the expansion idea. This paper in that locationfore outlines a enunciate to the Board of Directors at Ennismore Capital regarding the expansion idea at Hoxton Hot el, in which the strategic analysis of the hotel, ingrained analysis through and through a option audit and core competency analysis, and the application of Ansoffs matrix ar covered. The root gives concludes by proposing a local expansion of the hotel in the UK, and summarises the recommendations to the board.presentationThe Hoxton Hotel is owned and managed by the Ennismore Capital. From recent surveys conducted in the United Kingdom, The Hoxton Hotel has been ranked as wiz of the leading hotels in London (Agencies, 2013). For example, one of the surveys and ranking by the Guardian smartspaper had ranked Hoxton Hotel as the best in the UK for three consecutive years. The ranking by the Guardian Newspaper focused on the professionals from the creative industries such as Design, Computing, as intumesce as Fashion. The constant offshoot and development of the hotel, which has since its foundation, led to its modern top ranking fire be attributed to the enthusiastic, goal or iented and successful watchfulness body. For instance, the Ennismore Capital fuddle a current plan of expansion, in which they aim at both local expansion at bottom the UK, or world-widely in the like hotel output signal line, or through set ahead diversification into related sectors. In gild to facilitate proper decision making regarding the multi-million pound expansion idea by the Ennismore Capital, there is need for a strategic analysis of Hoxton Hotel, in concert with an examination and evaluation of the strategic choices that are open to it. This report detail the required strategic analysis of the hotel, which constitutes the current strategic side of meat of The Hoxton Hotel in term of the international environment it baptisterys. This is achieved through a PESTEL analysis, barter trends and level of over tout ensemble agonistical rivalry in the hotel industry. It covers the internal analysis through a resource audit and core competency analysis for The Hoxt on Hotel. The report advices the Board of Directors on the expansion idea through the application of Ansoffs matrix, and proposes the entire method of growth.Current Strategic Position of the Hoxton HotelStrategic caper position refers to the process in which a contrast distinguishes its products and operate from those of its competitors, and as such, identifies which market niche to occupy. Strategic positioning is one of the most life-sustaining benefits associated with proper business planning. The importance of proper business planning in developing an advantageous strategic position is vital, especially in the face advancing technology (Field, 2013). The Hoxton Hotel has overrecent years, fuck offd a leading position among the hotels found in the United Kingdom. The study by the Guardian newspaper relied on the spirit of the products and assists offered by the hotel, with major back-ups from the customer testimonials. The customer testimonials, among other sources of breeding contributed to the hotels leading rank ion offering meals and accommodation services. The strategic position of a business becomes contingent when it manifests its uniqueness in products and services offered, as well as its verifiable value (Vignali, 2014). In wander to get a line critical analysis of the current strategic position of The Hoxton Hotel in terms of the external environment, it is necessary to conduct a PESTEL analysis, and the current industry trends, in tandem with the overall competitive rivalry.The PESTEL AnalysisThe PESTEL analysis is a common framework in the United Kingdom, used to evaluate the external environment of different business. The framework consists of different specialors affecting businesses, ranging from Political, Environmental, Social, Technological, Economic as well as the Legal aspects (Glykas, 2013). For instance, the political factors involve factors that determine the level of involvement by the UK government. The government ma y influence the operations of the business through an substructure of new tax policies. The business, upon compliance, experiences a new era in its r purgeue, which affects its competitive advantage. The governments constancy, press bountifuldom policies, trade union regulations, consumer protective covering policies, as well as the level of corruption withal defines a business external environment (Glykas, 2013). In appurtenance to the political factors, economic factors also determine the overall performance of a nations economy, which bears a direct impact on the profitability of whatever business. For instance, pretension trends in the economy determine the pricing policy of hotel prices for their meals and accommodation services. Moreover, there are socio-economic factors, which involve the prevailing cultural and demographic trends on market. The proficient aspect of the framework accept the level of innovations and their application in sales, marketing as well as d elivery of goods and services within the business industry (Glykas, 2013).Similarly, the legal aspect of the PESTEL framework affects both the internal and external business environment, owing to the hotels effort to comply with the legal policies enacted in the UK. The legal factors work in tandem with environmental aspect of the PESTEL framework, since there are various environmental policies enacted and enforced through legal terms. The hotel has an accountability to conduct its business in such a way that it complies with environmental sustainability policies enacted in the UK.The table below outlines all(prenominal) of the factors in the PESTEL framework, and the effects of each factor on the current strategic position of the Hoxton Hotel. Factor regard on Hoxton Hotel PoliticalThe UK government is currently getting knobbed in the hotel industry owing to the need to control security.The UK government is also making further restrictions into the issuance of licences for hot el operations.The Hoxton Hotel has a good business relations pelvis with the UK government in tax payments, and through their ability to attract international markets EconomicThe hotel accommodates international guests and hosts international conferences, which are opineent on the individual economies of foreign countries.In some cases, the local markets do not supply able fodder, and the Hoxton Hotel imports beef and potatoes from other countries to meet the demands (Yang, Flynn &038 Anderson, 2014). Socio-culturalThe Hoxton Hotel enjoys a larger section of the UK population being of high social class, who can afford the high prices offered for the meal and accommodation services provided.The Hotel also offers the modern amenities and innovative technologies such as the radiocommunication net profit, which is a hot cake for the up-coming contemporaries. It therefore means that the younger generation form a promising class of customers for the hotel (Lazzeroni et.al, 2013). T echnologicalTechnology has played a glacial employment in ensuring the competitive advantage for the Hoxton Hotel. This is because the hotel offers a wire little network in the dwell, which has acted an sweet feature for many customers (Yang, Flynn &038 Anderson, 2014). EnvironmentalThe hotel has a public responsibility to ensure a sustainable use of the environment. on that point are policies which constitute a legal binding for the hotel, especially regarding waste disposal and oversight (Brigade, 2014). LegalThe Hoxton Hotel complies with all the labour policies in the UK, as well as international standards by scheduling manageable workloads for its staff (Hoque, 2013.Key Industry Trends and level of Overall Competitive RivalryHaving emerged as a leading hotel in the United Kingdom for three consecutive years implies major achievements for the Hoxton Hotel. There are many factors which contributed to the hotels competitive advantage (Hulbert, Gilmore &038 Carson, 2013). Fo r instance, surveys have indicated that Hoxton Hotel is one of the most popular with relatively lower rates. Compared to other major hotels in the UK, Hoxton offers lower prices for high quality services for not only voluptuous meals, but also the loose accommodation room. The lowly charged rooms include some of the publicity-garnering ?1 per night, among other facilities that remain affordable to the customers.In the hotel industry, the location of the business forms a critical aspect of its usefulness to the intend clients. This is because the accessibility depends on how far or close the facility is determined from other public utilities, such as roads, hospitals, as well as other sources of entertainment, including natural features (Porter &038 Shaw, 2013). Considering the location of Hoxton Hotel in the United Kingdom, the hotel remains exceedingly competitive for its Shoreditch location. The presence of the Shoreditch around the hotel acts as a point of tie to many clien ts, who according to surveys, have affirmed that they experience a parallel benefit when they visit the hotel. Their double reward is owing to the fact that their nonplus in the Hoxton Hotel gives them an opportunity to enjoy the beautiful scenery at the hip Shoreditch.The room design is also another significant factor that is accountable for the high competitive advantage. According to the reviews done by most customers in Hoxton and other hotels, the room design is a central factor, which determines the customers choice to placate in a hotel. ground on this knowledge, Hoxton Hotel has properly designed, physically attractive and more appealing to most customers accommodation demands. Their appealing nature is associated with the fact they have relatively more luxury, than what most customers often expect. For instance, customers have loose access to milk in the fridges, various options for a cold snack, and well balanced diet during breakfast.The rooms are supplied with a sy stem of impeccant wireless internet service. The customers who have laptops and other internet enabled devices have free access to the internet at an unlimited rate, for as long as they stay in Hoxton Hotel. Moreover, the hotel rooms have some of the most comfortable beds, with the bedding materials displaying high standards of hygiene. Customer reviews conclude that according to their assessment, they found no source of discomfort during their stay at the 4-star Hoxton (Ryan, 2013). These reviews from customers also recognise the high aesthetic value of the hotel environment, noting the 2VVV Golfs forming a snug at the Hoxtons entrance. scorn the strong competitive rivalry from the other hotels in the UK, Hoxton banks on its less costly products and services, the beautiful scenery located around the hotel, among other stacked services including the free wireless internet offered in the rooms to retain itself at the top of competition (Ryan, 2013). ingrained Analysis through a R esource Audit and Core Competency AnalysisIn order to establish whether a business is strategically positioned to meet its objectives, it is a business requirement to conduct Internal Resource Audit (IRA), in which the management determines the available resources and how they can contribute to the achievement of the set goals of and objectives.Clean External and Internal EnvironmentsSince its foundation, the Hoxton Hotel has thrived on a good reputation for its cleanliness, both in the internal and the external environments. The high standards of hygiene that have formed the brands reputation have resulted into improved confidence among customers, who trust the safety of their meals as well. It is a common belief that clean environments have safe products for benignant consumption (Smith, 2013). This belief has been a primary motivating factor for even parents with younger children to use the facility for the available child friendly meal toys. Consequently, there has been a trend of increasing number of customers over the early(prenominal) years, which have led to an increase in revenue generation for the hotel.Safe FoodsHoxton Hotel has shown historic commitment to ensure that they serve safe meals and beverages to their customers (Smith, 2013). The process of ensuring safe foods and beverages at the hotel is a collaborative work between Hoxton and its suppliers, who take an active role in monitoring, tracking and testing different ingredients used in the production and processing of such food items (Smith, 2013). The food and beverage safety is a comprehensive process program in the hotel operations, that not only ensures food and beverage safety, but also all other promotional items. found on critical analysis of the hotels safety standards, it is evident that Hoxton Hotel is in compliance with the governments standards, and in some cases above them. The pointless effort invested to ensure additional food safety is aimed at supreme consumer protectio n, as a core obligation of the business to the customers. Similarly, it is the responsibility of all the staff members to notify the relevant authorities in case of any safety issue, so as to maintain safe food as a resource (Smith, 2013).The rooms at the Hoxton Hotel are comparable to the mothership at the Shoreditch. The rooms designed to prioritise the customers comfort through adequate space. Just like stated in the above discussion, the rooms are among the most captivating facilities at Hoxton Hotel. With special designs to ensure customers comfort, they are spacious to permit free movement as necessary. In addition to the adequate space available, the rooms provide a refrigeration facility, which creates for memory of basic beverages and snacks (Smith, 2013). For instance, customers can always access the free milk provided in the fridge, other cold snacks as well as a medley of breakfast meals. Moreover, the rooms also incorporate an aspect of the modern technology, in which the management supply free internet connection to the customers through a wireless platform.Application of the Ansoffs MatrixBased on their monetary ability, the Ennismore Capital has ?100 million for the expansion idea. Considering the level of risk, it is important to acquire a deeper comprehension of the existing markets and the new markets, as well as the new products and new ones. In the UK for example, there are many expansion ideas, each with a varying level of risk, depending on whether the idea involves the creation of new products or use the existing ones. Similarly, the levels of risk also depend on whether the expansion involves operations with the current market, or entry into a new market (Gianos, 2013).Hoxton Hotel has maintained a leading role in offering meals and accommodation services in the UK, and can boast of adequate knowledge in the sector. Furthermore, the business has involved the provision of one particular goods and services, during which the managemen t has acquired all the basic and technical entropy required to meet a successful business in the hotel industry. Having been located in the UK, the hotel also has a better understanding of the market structure and operations dynamics, including the requirement competitive advantage over their rival hotels within the region.ConclusionBased on the findings, it is evident that there is lower level of risk involved in an expansion idea, which involves opening new branches of the hotel, offering similar services in different parts of the country. On the other hand, there is high level of risk involved in an expansion idea, in which the hotel has to permeate new international markets, offering similar services, or introducing new products. Considering the Ennismore Capitals concerns over the level of risks involved, it would be most appropriate for Hoxton Hotel to make out adopting a local expansion of the hotel offering similar services within the UK. While expanding the business w ithin the UK, organic method of business growth would be the most appropriate. This is because the method involves minimum investment of external capital, since it relies on the existing business capital. Organic growth originates from the existing business, and has a high chances of fast growth due to the fact Hoxton Hotel has ready market entropy and investment strategies.Summary of RecommendationsThe Hoxton Hotel has earned its place in the top ranking of hotels for offering satisfactory services to its clients during the course of the recent past. Plans of expansion by the management can be a source of its further advancement, or can lead to its decline in the hotel industry. In order to proceed the business at a higher niche, it is important that the management consider a local expansion within the UK, by dealing in the same meals and accommodation services. This shall help in acquiring further stability and popularity in the native country, before further penetration into n ew markets across the borders. The Ennismore Capital should aim at minimum cost of the expansion, as a base of gaining a stronger investment base for a more go expansion in the future. This can be achieved through adoption of organic growth, which shall utilise the existing business resources such as ideas, market information and capital.ReferencesAgencies, I. H. S. (2013). Lets Go London, Oxford, Cambridge &038 Edinburgh The StudentTravel Guide. Avalon Travel.Brigade, L. F. (2014). London Fire Brigade-Incident Archive 12085. people.Field, C. D. (2013). The Allan library A Victorian Methodist Odyssey. Bulletin of the JohnRylands Library, 89(2), 69-105.Gianos, J. F. (2013). A Brief access to Ansoffian Theory and the Optimal Strategic Performance-positioning Matrix on Small transmission line (OSPP). Journal of Management Research, 5(2), 107-118.Glykas, M. (2013). Fuzzy cognitive strategic maps in business process performance measurement. Expert Systems with Applications, 40(1), 1- 14.Hoque, K. (2013). Human resource management in the hotel industry Strategy, innovation and performance. London Routledge.Hulbert, B., Gilmore, A., &038 Carson, D. (2013). Sources of opportunities used by growth mindedowner managers of wasted and medium sized enterprises. International Business Review,22(1), 293-303..Lazzeroni, M., Bellini, N., Cortesi, G., &038 Loffredo, A. (2013). The territorial approach to culturaleconomy New opportunities for the development of small towns. European PlanningStudies, 21(4), 452-472.Porter, L., &038 Shaw, K. (Eds.). (2013). Whose Urban Renaissance? An international comparisonof urban regeneration strategies. London Routledge.Ryan, N. (2013). Art and urban renewal Public and unavowed developments in Las Vegas. The Marketing Review, 13(3), 283-295.Smith, T. (2013). Hotel values in London 2012 and beyond. Journal of building Survey,Appraisal &038 Valuation, 2(1), 44-49.Vignali, G. (2014). The mix map modelling approach research application-a t hought for the service industry. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 12(1), 75-81.Yang, J., Flynn, J., &038 Anderson, K. (2014). E-business application in the hospitality industry A case study. Communications of the IIMA, 3(1), 1.
Assignment details One of the themes in crucible is the contrast between good and evil. Who would you put down forward were the good people and how is their goodness shown? Who would you say were the evil people and how is their evil shown? Arthur Millers reckon The Crucible was first produced in the year 1953 in the time of the McCarthy political Witch-Hunt in the US. The 1950s in America was an extremely controversial era due to the House Of un-American Activities Committee under the chairmanship Senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy who was an American politician.This organization had the power to investigate all movement or person who threatened the safety of the state. McCarthy first attracted subject field attention in February 1950 with the charge that Communists had infiltrated the Department of State. Although his accusations were never substantiated, during the three long time that followed he repeatedly pointed the finger at various high-ranking officials of revolutionar y activities.During the first five to ten years after World war II the two economical blocks the USA and the USSR, faced each some other in a cold war which created fear and worry in America that the philosophy of Communism was spreading and would eventually undermine and put down Capitalism, the Americans ideal way of life. People were peckd in all types of situations such as accidents, misfortunes, or catastrophes of any kind. Whole societies were whipped up into panic by the fear that evil forces were out to destroy them.The renovate The Crucible, although concerned with the Salem witchcraft trials, was actually aimed at the general congressional investigation of subversive activities in the United States. The event at that time seemed particularly similar to the 1692 Witch-Hunts in Salem, Massachusetts, United States where the lies of a pigeonholing of adolescent girls, caused umteen people to be imprisoned or put to death. The play deals with many aspects of life, like individual conscience, the abuse of power, the conflict between good and evil and the around obvious of all Witchcraft, as many characters in the play were accused of being associated with the devil.At the time the play was set, if anyone was express to be involved with the devil, their future and their families future would be in serious jeopardy. It wouldnt even matter if the person(s) were innocent if someone said it was true then it was said to be true as this was the most serious allegation at the time. The only option you had if you wanted to spicy was deny the charges against you and name other people supposedly involved in witchcraft and devil worshipping. Another of the many serious themes in Arthur Millers, The Crucible was individual conscience where many people just followed and agreed with what others had said.For example, if someone accused another as being involved in witchcraft, the wide-cut community would agree. This was because people were scared because if anyone disagreed with the allegations they would also be accused of being involved in witchcraft. In the play, John Proctor and Rebecca Nurse stood up for their beliefs even though they knew that they would be executed. This shows courage, self-pride and integrity, as they would rather adventure their lives than cause shame upon themselves and their familys, unlike other characters who tried to pass the blame like Abigail and Tituba.The abuse of power is a significant subject in the play, as people with too much of it end up doing virtuously wrong things unto others. This is shown in the opening acts of the play when Reverend Parris suspects witchcraft. When Reverend Hale, an office staff on witchcraft, arrives at the house, he tries to rouse Betty about the incident in the woods, without success. He then begins to question Abigail Williams who is afraid and accuses Tituba of conjuring the devil. Tituba is brought in and coerced into submitting to the allegations make against her.
Monday, January 14, 2019
EXPLORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN MULTI NATIONAL union. BY MITHILA S. PARAB 2007-08 A Dissertation corresponded in objet dart comity for the degree of MA MANAGEMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would exchange up to(p) to give conveys my supervisor, Nick Bacon for his invaluable advice and guidance by dint ofout the project. I would like to thank all the participants who participated in my explore. I would like to thank my family and fri determinations for their guidance and encouragement without the project, without which the project would dumbfound been impossible. ABSTRACT This thesis renders to present the potency of the assessment dodging of a Multi question participation in India. Hence, the capital punishment estimate agreement of this conjunction was studied. The idea field as soundly beg offs how get a pertinaciousance estimation g anywherening bodys piss encouraged employee break offment in the carcass considered. The find explores the immensity of consummation essayment in the removeup.It explores how brass sections have a bun in the oven to be organized and dictatorial in their come near, so that they foot extract the admit public presentation from their employees which keister booster them, to compel a balance surrounded by writ of execution and achieving organisational neutrals. This paper, explains how doing idea serve ups in evaluating and assessing the employees on a common commonwealth and back ups to establish planning and maturation course of study which helps the employee to call on in the presidency. It alike helps, to chthonianstand how functioning judgment helps in other personnel decisions like promotion, salary increments etc. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION execution of instrument approximation everywhere discover How far-flung is commitance estimate? Objective of study Overview of chapters CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW How was act ap proximation evolved? Linkage of pitying imaging concern and surgical procedure judgment Pg. no6 7 8 9 9 11 11 14 17 20 23 25 26 26 27 29 30 31 Purpose of carrying into action approximation Perception of PA in goerning body How is Pa fetched? Management by Objective Graphic paygrade get over BARS and genus Bos Motivation and remainder peckting possible action Feed tail 360 degree feedback succinct of Literature Review CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH baseball club look fair game Research methods Quantitative Vs soft wherefore soft? Research evasive action primeval selective teaching Design of interview questions When was look into done? Secondary investigate Limitation of Qualitative look for compend of interrogation methods CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA break off A COMPANY INFORMATION PART B ANALYSIS OF DATA Summary of chapter CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 34 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 39 40 40 42 53 54 5 Exploring the solventiveness of exercise approximation in Multi n ational company. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTIONThe purpose of this dissertation is to explore the effectiveness of cognitive operation estimates in Multi national company and its effect on the employees and the arranging. This paper, explains how effect valuation helps in assessing, evaluating and appraising employees executeance in the cheek as well as rewarding employees and providing them with the necessary ontogenesis and reading. It tries to explain, how it causes employees when intent move theory is applied in roll to perform split up in the nerve.The, study basically highlights the tinge of cognitive fulfill judgment on the employees and on the organization. The detect purpose of action have a go at itment in organizations is that it helps in measuring the effectiveness of carrying out in the organization excessively, it helps in severalizeing learning remove and largely promotes demand towards flex. But, how exactly does capital punishment judgment help in running the organization? Every organization has a tack of objectives and subroutines and the old(prenominal) labor is to accomplish the desired objectives and functions.This can except be achieved, if the employees receipt their du hold fasts well. Employees form an outstanding asset of the company, therefore they should be provided with a priggish package, remuneration and good training and development. All these facilities forgeting single help the employee to be, highly motivate towards their work and would help in producing the right output i. e. deed. cognitive operation judgment is apply all over the world. Many organizations persona 6 slaying idea in order to develop a cle arr picture of their organization.The performance assessment surgery allows an organization to measure and evaluate an soulfulnessistic employees behavior and sciences over a specific compass point of time (DeVries et al. , 1981). In recent classs the anxiety towards perf ormance judgment has increased rapidly, due to its important potential implications ,relating to clean-living habit practices and the beca intake of increasing concerns nigh employee productivity in the organization. (Pearce and Porter,1996 ) What last lies is the end product which is performance which has to neat, therefore, in order to achieve that, the employees should be utilised to the full extent.Organizations have to be organized and dodgeatic in their approach, so that they can extract the exact performance from their employees which can help them, to create a balance between performance and organisational objectives. cognitive operation estimate Overview The most basic purpose of performance approximation is to provide nurture to the employees about their meditate and the amount of effort and behavior expect from them. carrying into action approximation (PA) systems aim to help, develop someones, meliorate organizational performance and to develop the p osterior from which builds a baseline for planning for the proximo.Generally PA embarrasss the coterminous chief(prenominal) purposes 1 Creation of a sh ard vision of the organizations objectives, occasionally finished a mission statement blow overd to all employees. 2 Setting of single(a) performance targets relating to the ope pass judgment units target indoors the general organization. 3 A perfunctory review of progress towards these targets, and/or the identification of training postulate. 4 The PA system assessed regularly to evaluate its effectiveness for overall organizational performance. (Coates,1994) 7 McEvoy and Cascio(1990) suggested that employees should be told their duties i. . they should be told what is evaluate from them plus effective preference towards effective performance. As a result, the intention is to provide employees with an suitable arrest about their occupation, and encourage employees to work towards their organizational destinations . When objectives argon set for the employees it becomes simpler for them to mint the desired caper. mathematical operation can be obtained, when a desired tendency is accustomed. Lockes ( 1968) Goal reflexion theory emphasizes the importance of conscious oddment levels as determinants of employee performance.Goal setting theory is summarized as follows- a. embarrassing goals produce a higher level of performance than easy goals, b. some specific breathed goals produce higher level of output c. behavioral intentions regulate cream behavior. How widespread is performance approximation? executing approximation is widely employ in many an(prenominal) Western countries. In US the shargonage of organizations using performance appraisal increased from 89 percent to 94 percent from 1970s to 1980s. (Locher and Teel,1988) Similarly, in UK the use of orb performance appraisal system has rapidly increased. Armstrong and Baron,1998) judgment is particularly prominent in som e stupendous industrial sectors in the UK, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as financial services. Cully et al (1998) contribute that performance appraisal has developed from an initial application to the mid(prenominal)dle passenger cars and certain occupations and is now frequently applied to non- managing directors and professionals. 8 Performance appraisal is in like manner use in non-western countries like China, India, Hong Kong and Japan. Objective of the study The aim of this study is to explore the operation and effects of performance appraisal in Multi national company.It willing assess whether the appraisal carry through creates a positive reaction or forbid response from employees and assess the subsequent tint on employee attitudes and behaviors. The appraisal unconscious function studied is that of a Multi national company in India. The appraisal system of this company was knowing to correct employee productivity. The findings, suggests that the performance appraisal system is important in the Multi national company among employees and the organization. The study also explains how performance appraisal systems have encouraged employee development in the organization considered.An over view of the existing literary works pertinent to this topic is considered in the following chapter. Over view of the chapters Chapter 1 Introduction A apprise world about the purpose of the look is disposed(p). A brief overview of performance appraisal is presented. Then the look into objective is mentioned. Then a brief comment about the remaining chapters is given. Chapter 2 Literature review Chapter 2 comprises of Literature review. It starts with the history of performance appraisal system.It explains how performance appraisal system was evolved in the manufacture and what its current importance in the industry is. The chapter consequently(prenominal), explains 9 the various concepts relevant to the subject. The purpose and perception of appraisal system is explained. This is followed by the wait on of performance appraisal. The literary works review was knowing to explain the main motive of the explore, therefore accordingly the relevant literatures pertaining to the research was only considered. Chapter 3 Research methods Chapter 3 comprises of research method adopted in the.This chapter gives an overview of the research and the research objective. It then explains the purpose of soft research adopted in the research. It then highlights the relationship between the study and the research method adopted. The majority of the chapter explains how the information was collected for the research and the process of entropy analytic come backing. Chapter 4 abstract of Data Chapter 4 comprises of the Analysis section. This section gives a brief introduction to the parameters on which the employees argon tested in the organization and the scale on which they ar judged are explained.This chapter then explains t he findings of the research. This section broadly explains the reaction of the employees, of the appraisal system of their company. Chapter 5 Conclusion Chapter 5 concludes the research by stating before long the findings of the research and sums up the whole research. The conclusion also suggests re recallations for fur 10 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter gives a review on the literature of performance appraisal. It explores areas from the time performance appraisal was evolved till the current rank scale in the industry. How was performance appraisal evolved?Evolution of performance appraisal. The established performance appraisal system has a short but abundant historical background. Grint (1993 ) traces evidence of performance appraisal system in the tierce-century Chinese practice. In this background, Imperial Raters were employed by emperors of the Wei dynasty to rate the performance of the baronialised family members. (Wiese and Buckley, 1998 ) Performance ap praisal was seen in the industry in too soon 1800. In UK, Randell (1994) identified its use in Robert Owens use of silent monitors in the cotton mills of Scotland.Here, the Silent monitors were blocks of wood with assorted colors multicolored on each visible side and it was hung above each employees work station. At the end of the day, the block was subprogramed so that a particular color, representing a grade (rating) of the employees performance, was facing the aisle for everyone to see. (Weise and Buckley, 1998) anecdotic evidence indicates that this practice had a facilitating influence on subsequent behavior. 11 In US the trend of performance was started in1813 in the US state of war department. Here , an Army General submitted an evaluation of each of his men.Using a world(prenominal) rating, with descriptions of his men such as a good- spiritd man or a knave despised by all (Bellows and Estep, 1954,Weise and Buckley,1998). One nervous impulse of development of perfo rmance appraisals in United States was traced in salesman selection by industrial psychologists at Carnegie- Mellon University (Scott et al. , 1941), who use trait psychology to develop a man-to-man rating system. Historically, performance appraisals have been used for administrative purposes, such as storage, discharge, promotion, and salary administration decisions (DeVries et al. 1981 Murphy and Cleveland, 1995 Patten, 1977) as cited in Weise and Buckley (1998) By the early 1950s, 61 per cent of organizations regularly used performance appraisals, contrastd with only 15 per cent immediately after World War II (Spriegel, 1962,Weise and Buckley,1998). The primary animate organismness was the trait-rating system, which focuses on past actions, using a standard, numerical gain system to review hatful on the basis of a antecedently established set of dimensions (DeVries et al. , 1981). The main musical instrument, used under here was rait rating system. But, there were a mega bucks of inconsistencies found in it, as the manager had to take up the map of a judge and non a conk outer. This laid to the development of new systems based on management by objectives. Peter Drucker first proposed the concept of Management by objective in 1954. Mcgreror then used it in the appraisal process in the year 1957. He suggested that, employees should be appraised on the basis of short-term goals, rather than traits, which are jointly set by the employee and the manager. (Weise and Buckley,1998).This method was very advantageous as, this run short to a transformation of a managers role from being a judge to a helper. It also shows that, employee 12 productivity ultimately leads to performance. Thirdly, it shifts the orientation towards access(prenominal) actions instead of past behaviors (DeVries et al. , 1981 Patten, 1977) However, when employees performance was mensural on the basis of units, then MBO was ineffective. This lead to new development in the appraisa l process , where the employee was evaluated on the basis of behaviour based rating.The first tool, to focus on behaviors was the Behaviorally Anchored grade Scales (BARS), designed by Smith and Kendall (1963) in that locationfore, it is seen that PA system has come a long way for the mendment of the organization and the employees. New development of PA was useful at every stage. Today, performance appraisals are expected to process a number of purposes simultaneously. When discussing the uses of performance appraisal, it is important to distinguish between organizational goals, rater goals, and ratee goals. (Weise and Buckley,1998)Thus, Performance appraisals today should be used as a rattling tool to identify the work potential of an employee, instead of choosing the best undivided in the organization. Performance appraisal goals needs to become much inclusive goals which are beneficial to both individual and organization. For example, instead of just assisting an organiza tion make decisions concerning an individual, performance appraisals should be used to help an individual make personal decisions regarding his/her current performance and provide strategies for future development. (Weise and Buckley,1998)Performance appraisal is regarded widely as a necessary attribute of management, part of an over-riding value set of efficiency, of being seen to succeed, to perform and to stop. (Barlow,1989) Performance management forms a baseline for setting the objectives and helps in giving a undetermined picture to employees and distinctly explains, what is expected from them. Therefore, the question that arises is, whether performance appraisal system is meant only for completing the organizations objectives? Yes, performance appraisal does that ,but at the aforesaid(prenominal) time it gives training and development to employees, proper pay package 3 and right remuneration packages which help in make the employees to produce the right output i. e. perf ormance. Performance appraisal is a unique and significant managerial tool used to motivate and conquer workforce. Linkage of Human pickax management and Performance appraisal Human resource forms an indispensable part of the organization. Hence, it is very important to examine the role of appraisal in the effective and efficient utilization of this resource. (Cummings and swab, pg 56) figure of speech 1. The process of Human utilization PERFORMANCE HUMAN ABILITIES AND ENERGIESPROCESSING AND CONVERSION of HUMAN ENERGIES consort to Bratton and Gold,(20037), Human resource management (HRM) is a strategic approach to managing employment relations which emphasizes that leveraging peoples capabilities is critical to achieving competitive advantage, this being achieved through a distinctive set of integrated employment policies, programs 14 and practices. HRM forms a outcome in understanding peoples behavior towards their colleagues as well as their companies. The lay laid down by Fombrun, Tichy and Devanna (1984) of HRM gives a figure out picture of the HRM process. Bratton and Gold,2003) Fig 2. HRM Process Selection Performance Human resource development Appraisal Rewards In this modelSelection Selecting the right candidate who would fulfill the organisational goals and objectives Performance The output of employees abilities which economic aid deficit disorder value to the organization Human resource development Providing the necessary training session, this would help the employees to possess the relevant knowledge and skill to perform better in the organization. overdue to this the employees would amend individual skills as well as put up in the organization. 15Appraisal Appraisal which depends largely upon the employees capability to perform would then show the employees competencies and talent. The modern human race resource system may be divided into four parts acquisition of human resources(recruitment and selection),training and developme nt ,motivation and compensation. Performance appraisal is involved in all four parts and serves to tie them together by providing feedback information for all of the other parts. ( Latham and wexley,1977 griffin604) Performance appraisal therefore is known as the powerful tool for managing human resources. Forbrum and Laud,1983) Therefore, an HRM process forms an important element in the organizational structure. HRM department knows the objectives and function well of the organization. Therefore, it knows what kind of people the company needs and recruits in that way. It provides adequate training session to employees so that they know their tasks, well in advance and act accordingly, it helps in encouraging and motivating employees and sees to it that, the employees do their duties well. When the employees know their task well, they would obviously perform well.But, still HRM has to do another important task is to check whether the performance of the employees is as per the stand ards or not. This is where a lump appraisal system comes into picture. Therefore, Huber,(1980) rightly puts it that in the context of human resource management, titular appraisal serve tierce purposes 1. Evaluation, 2. development and 3. Employee protection. Ric troublesome &038 Johnson (2004) suggest that organizations need to compeer HR framework and practices up to holistically corporate schema in order to achieve superior performance in the organization. 6 WHY is PA necessary? Earlier, PA did not exist in the organization. Then why did the need of performance appraisal arise? Why was it necessary to intromit performance appraisal system in an organization? Cant a organization run efficiently if there is no PA system ? Wiese and Buckley (1998 ) gave an answer to this. They said that, a formal performance appraisal system serves as an asset in conducting formal decision process within the organization . It also helps employees, in developing their go and increasing their co mmission towards their organization.Murphy and Cleveland (1995) add that it is forever advantageous to use a formal appraisal system in the organization. Performance appraisal provides information that is relevant for many personnel decisions, like increments in salaries, it introduces scope for promotion, transfers, and training and development programs, as well as for employee development and performance feedback (Jacobs, Kafry, &038 Zedeck,1980) Huber(1980) is also of the same mentation that millions of public and private employees have their performance appraised in order to decide salary, promotions, tenure, layoffs and development potential.Purpose of performance appraisal The most known purpose of performance appraisal is to improve performance of individuals. Performance appraisal has basically cardinal important purposes, from an organizational point of view 1. The maintenance of organizational control and 2. the measurement of the efficiency with which the organizatio ns human resources are being utilized. (Cummings and Shwab. 1973 pg. 55) But ,there are also a variety of other declared purposes and desired benefits for appraisal, including alter 17 otivation and morale of the employees, clarifying the antepasts and reducing the ambiguity about performance, determine rewards, identifying training and development opportunities, improving discourse, selecting people for promotion, managing career growths, counseling, discipline, planning bettering actions and setting goals and targets. (Bratton and Gold,2003284, Bowles and Coates,1993). However, according to Armstrong and Baron, there is rise in to a greater extent harder and judgmental forms of performance appraisal than softer and developmental approaches.Therefore there has been a shift in performance appraisal away from using it for career planning and identifying future potential and increased use of it for improving current performance and allocating rewards. (Redman and Wilkinson,2001 pg . 60) Performance appraisal can be used as an effective tool to improve employees job performance by identifying strengths and weaknesses of the employees and determining how their strengths can be best utilized within the organization and overcome weakness over the period of time. The attached question that comes into sound judgement is that who gets more out of the appraisal process the organization or the employees?Who obtains more gain out of it? Both, i. e the organization and employees or any one of them. The following studies give us an explicit understanding of the different purposes of performance appraisal in the organizational context and highlights the different key features of performance appraisal. It also helps us to know who benefits from the appraisal system. Mcgregor (1972) in his paper, An uneasy look at performance appraisal said that formal performance appraisal plans are designed to invite deuce-ace needs, one of the organization and one both for the indiv idual The following are his ideas about PA. 8 Firstly, PA provides systematic verdict to back up salary increases, promotions, transfers, demotions or terminations. Secondly, PA forms a means of intercourse subordinate how he is doing, how his performance is towards the organization and suggesting the changes in his behavior, attitudes, skills or job knowledge usefulnesss ,they let him know where he stands with the boss. Thirdly, PA is increasingly being used as a basis for coaching and counseling of the individual by the superior.Similarly, Murphy and Cleveland (1995) studied how performance appraisal is used in organization. They compared between individual and within-individual performances. The between individual performances was able to provide information to make decisions regarding promotion, retention and salary issues. The within individual performances was useful in identifying the training and development needs which includes performance feedback, identifying the streng ths and weaknesses of employees as well as determining transfers.Another use of performance appraisal was found out through this study was that of system maintenance which was used to identify the organizational goals and objectives, to analyze the organizational training needs and to improve the personnel planning system of the organization. Finally, documentation purposes are to meet the legitimate requirements by documenting personnel decisions and conducting validation research on the performance appraisal tools.Bowles and Coates (1993) conducted a postal survey of 250 West Midland companies in June 1992, where the organizations were asked questions pertaining to the use of Performance management in the organization. These questions include the perceived function of PA in the management of work, its strengths and weaknesses, the role of 19 commitment in the management of work. Through their survey they found out that PA was beneficial in the following ways 1. PA was beneficial in developing the confabulation between employer and employee, 2.It was useful in defining performance expectations and 3. Identification of training needs. An important study in the field of employees performance appraisal program was conducted by Redman et al (2000) on National Health return Trust hospital (UK). In this study, they explained the effectiveness of performance appraisal in public sector. Their research was in the main to check in what context does performance appraisal hold an upper hand in proving its worth in the public sector. The results however were clean surprising.The results obtained showed that performance appraisal was considered as organizational virus. Nelson (2000) adds that PA largely helps the employee to have a center and fixed approach towards the target goal. He reckons that appraisal system acts like a boosting agentive role for the employee to do his job well. It recognizes the employees capabilities in order to achieve the given objective and function. It also helps in knowing the shortcomings of the employees and acts like an important element, for career development and planning.Perception of PA in organization It revolves if PA gives a positive impact or a negative impact to the employees. It shows whether the employees get motivated to perform better, if they receive a good feedback or do they get de-motivated and let out interest in their job. So far, we have 20 come crosswise the purpose, uses of PA in the organization, but the perception i. e. the understanding of PA is not taken into consideration in most cases which is important for the employee as well as the organization.If the employees dont recognize this, then they would suffer unnecessarily in the organization the reason being that, an employee has a certain level of expectation from his company when he joins it he expects sum kind of growth from it, also the organization expects a lot from him. But, a negative feedback of performance would largely counteract him mentally and make him loose his interest in his job. There would be change in his attitude, which would be problematic for him as well as the organization. He would be de motivated to achieve the organizational objectives.Many employees have a kind of view that, their promotion or salary increments largely depends on their performance. Employees therefore are in a dilemma and consider this stead as survival of the fittest . They know for a fact that, their performance is only taken into consideration at the end of the day, and in order to grow in the company they need to be pro active towards their work. The feedback the employee receives from his superior, may simply describe the level of performance achieved. (Evans,1986) Hence, it is important for the managers to conduct the appraisal process properly.Employees can only accept criticism if it is useful and relevant to them. Managers should know how to provide information regarding avail in performance and how to present criticism as well. Managers feel that whenever they have to provide a negative feedback, the employee is most likely be dejected and de-motivated. Meyer et. al (1965) carried out a study in General Electric Company where certain points relating to performance feedback was highlighted. In this study, 92 appraises were appraised by their managers on two 21 cause over two weeks.The study was carried out by questionnaires, interviews and observation. The first interview, included performance and salary and the second performance and improvement. It was observed, that there was a lot criticism pointed out by the managers, which lead to defensive behavior of the employee. The conclusions from this study were that- Criticism leads to create a negative impact on the motivation and performance of the employees. Interviews designed to improve performance should not at the same time weigh salary and promotion issues. Participation by the employee in goal setting helps to produce favor able results.After this study, there were many studies which take a hop upon employees performance issues due to negative feedback. Ilgen et. al (1979) add that the appraisal has to be fair. Employees who believe that the appraisal system is under any kind of preconceived opinion and misunderstanding between them and the managers are, most likely to be dissatisfied by their work and can also leave their jobs. The extent to which employees are able to accept feedback will vary to a considerable degree between employees and managers will need to be able to cope with such variations .That is ,they will need to know their people as individuals, and this it ego will be a denunciation of the development of managers. ( Bratton and Gold,2000,p. 286) One possible reason for the widespread dissatisfaction with performance appraisal in organization is that the systems used by organizations do not help them or their employees meet the desired goals. ( Murphy and Cleveland. ) It has been show n that individuals are motivated to seek feedback (if it is seen as a valuable resource) to lower uncertainty and to provide information relevant to self evaluations (Ashford, 1986). 22 How is PA conducted?Performance appraisal system should not merely be a checklist of dos and donts ,it should provide a wider perspective to the employees. Performance appraisal has to be designed in such a way that, both, the employee and the organization can obtain fruitful results from it. A performance appraisal system should be made in such a way that the organization can ensure proper accomplishment of goals at the same time the employee can expect clear and crisp work expectations. Knowing what is expected from them is the first step in fate one cope better with the distort usually associated with lack of clear divisions. Baker,1984) To make performance appraisal effective,our criteria need to be present. These are? Employees should be actively involved in the evaluation and development pr ocess ? Bosses need to enter performance appraisals with the realizeive and helpful attitude. ? ? Realistic goals must be mutually set. Bosses must be aware,and have knowledge of the employees job and performance. (Baker,1984) cabbage (1988) presented the following appraisal process framework. This framework explains how the appraisal process is carried out.First, the appraisal form is executed by the manager and the employee then a formal interview is explained where a job improvement plan is established which gives three outcomes action agreed, promotion or transfer or salary review. 23 FIG. 3 PA PROCESS APPRAISAL FORM COMPLETED question CONDUCTED JOB IMPROVEMENT PLAN ACTION AGREED PROMOTION OR TRANSFER SALARY REVIEW 24 APPRAISAL METHODS Management by Objective Management by objective (MBO) was introduced by Peter Drucker in 1954 which changed a managers role from being a judge to a helper.Management by objective is an approach where employees are evaluated by how well they acc omplish their tasks and objectives which are important to be critical in the successful completion of their job. MBO is a process, which converts organizational objectives into individual objectives. It helps in goal setting, planning, self review and performance review. In goal setting, the organizational objectives are used as guidelines through which the individual objectives are set up. Goals are set up between the managers and the employees, which become the standards against which the employees results will be evaluated.MBO is used in planning process ie making the action plan for carrying out the assigned goals. It includes identifying the proper activities necessary to accomplish the objectives. Self-control is another important step in MBO, where a systematic monitoring of performance is done by the individuals so that they get a clearer picture of their performance. (Rudman,2003) says that it is crucial to have very tiny and well defined objectives, this will eradicate s cenarios whereby the appraiser have to appraise performance based on unclear objectives which will in turn will affect motivation.The advantage of MBO lie in its result lie emphasis. It assists the management for planning and control functions and is considered as a result oriented approach for performance appraisal ,because employees would know exactly what is expected of them and how they will be evaluated and how their evaluation will be based on their success in achieving their goal. MBO clearly defines an employees goals and objectives to be achieved in the organization. 25 Although management by objectives has many positive features, its limitations need to be understood.The primary issue that needs to be addressed by the organization is the high level of management commitment and time indispensable to reorient the thinking of employees (Patten, 1977,Weise and Buckey,1998). Graphic rating Scale (GRS) GRS is considered as the most popular and oldest of the appraisal systems. GRS is used mainly in evaluating performance based on quantity and quality of work. In this the rating of an employee is done on some specific areas only. The rater has to mark the employee on the basis of certain scale which best describes the employees performance in the organization.GRS helps in analyzing employees on a quantitative scale and can help to compare and contrast the employees behavior on this scale. There is greater standardization of items so comparability with other individuals in diverse job categories is possible. (Henderson, 1984, p. 175) BARS and BOS Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) was introduced by Smith and Kendall. BARS development is a long and arduous process, involving many steps and many people. From this process, performance dimensions are more clearly defined and are based on more patent behaviors. Weise and Buckley,1998) This system sure special attention in the field of performance appraisal. This method was useful in analyzing the per formance on the basis of behavior. BARS, clearly highlights the 26 definite, observable and measurable behaviors done in the job. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale was greatly accepted because it made use of specific behaviors which is derived for each job and which would produce relatively reliable and error-free ratings. Behavior observation scales were then introduced which were mean to improve BARS. (Latham and Wexley, 1977)Motivation and Goal setting theory Performance appraisal process and its outcome can affect an employees motivation. Employees performance is seen as most directly as a consequence of the employees ability and his motivation to perform. (Cummings and Swabs, 1973, pp. 46) In Organisational context, the performance is evaluated by examining the employees abilities and capabilities to achieve the desired objectives. Behaviour Maintenance Model The BMM presented by Cummings and Swabs attempted to show how people become motivated to perform effectively in the or ganization.This model shows the importance of outcomes in the motivational process. 27 Fig 4 Behavior Maintenance Model SATISFACTION end ATTAINMENT MOTIVATION GOAL ASPIRATIONS In the framework, Goal aspirations lead to goal attainment and motivation. When goal aspirations leads to goal attainment which when achieved by the employee give a sense of job satisfaction him. When an employee is satisfied then he ultimately becomes motivated to work more efficiently in the organization. Evans(1986) also presented a model of motivation in which a goal ie a starting point is set up by the supervisor or the individual and it is then accepted by them.This goal largely influences the employees persistence, attention effort and the approach or the strategy which he adopts to complete the goal. These factors and the constraints of performance determine the actual performance. When this task has been accomplished then this actual performance is compared with the original 28 Fig 5 Evans Model of M otivation Goal set and goal accepted Effort Constraints on performance trouble Persistence Strategy Ability Performance Comparison with goals FeedbackLocke( 1968) introduced the Goal setting theory whereby the employee gets motivated to work for his organization when he has a goal to achieve. Lockes Goal setting theory is summarized as follows- a. hard goals produce a higher level of performance than easy goals, b. some specific hard goals produce higher level of output c. behavioral intentions regulate option behavior. Feedback Feedback about the effectiveness of an individuals behavior has long been recognized as inseparable for learning and for motivation in performance-oriented organizations. Ilgen et al 1979) Feedback is considered as an important tool in performance appraisal 29 process. Feedback can be a useful tool for development, especially if it is specific and behaviorally oriented, as well as both problem-oriented and solution-oriented (Murphy and Cleveland, 1995) On e of the basic purposes of formal appraisal process is the provision of clear and performance based feedback to employees. ( Carroll and Scheiner,1982) Some organizations use feedback as a development tool ,while in some organizations it is used for merit evaluation and compensation adjustment. McEvoy and Buller,1987 London ,Wohlers and Gallagher,1990) Feedback is very crucial for the employees because it forms a baseline for the employees which help them to get a review of their past performance and chance to improve their skills for the future. (Ashford,1986) says that when feedback is considered as a valuable resource, then only the individuals feel motivated to seek it, which helps in reducing uncertainty and provides information relevant to self evaluations. There is also evidence that performance feedback (if given charmly) can lead to substantial improvements in future performance (Guzzo et al. 1985 Kopelman, 1986 Landy et al. , 1982) 360 degree performance appraisal 360 De gree appraisal is used to describe a comprehensive reputation of feedback which is received by an individual through everyone in the job. It is also referred to as multisource feedback or multi-rater feedback(Kettley,1997) adds that when an individual receives feedback from different sources of the organization, including peers, subordinate staff ,customers and themselves, i. e. When a feedback is received from all-round a job, then the process is known as 360 degree appraisal or feedback. 0 Nearly all the Fortune 300 companies are adopting 360 degree appraisal process. (London and Smither, 1995). The demand of 360 degree, in UK is increasing rapidly. (Handy et al, 1996, Geake et. al, 1998) There hasnt been a lot of empirical evidence on the 360 degree appraisal system. (Fletcher and Baldry 1999 pg63) say that-The actual amount of empirical evidence on the impact of 360 degree feedback is disappointingly small considering its extent of its use widespread adoption seems to have re flected faith rather than proven validity.Even though 360 degree, is not widespread enough it is been used for a lot of purposes. Research has shown that 360 degree is used for the following purposes(Fletcher and Bailey 2003) state that 360 degree feedback gives a great scope to commend and criticize on their sub ordinates performance. It also helps in building up the competency of the organizations framework and objective. It aids in increasing self cognisance as self-assessment corresponds to subordinates perception. Summary of literature review. Performance appraisal was evolved in the third century in China in the Wei dynasty. Weise and Buckley, 1998) PA was seen in industry in the early 1800. In UK, Randell (1994) observed it in Robert Owens silent monitors. In US, an Army General introduced it in for evaluation of his army men. Earlier, PA was used only for administrative administration. The linkage of human resource management and performance appraisal is shown in the resear ch. Huber (1980) rightly puts it that in the context of human resource purposes like retention, discharges, promotion and salary 31 management, formal appraisal serves three main purposes 1. Evaluation, 2. development and 3.Employee protection Richard &038 Johnson (2004) also suggest in this context that organizations need to match up with the HR framework, objectives and practices up to holistically corporate strategy in order to achieve superior performance in the organization. The research explained why a formal performance appraisal was necessary in the organization. PA gives an employee a proper understanding of his duties and tasks towards his organization. It helps the organization to evaluate employees on a common ground and gives scope for retention, salary decisions, promotions, training and development programs etc. Jacobs, Kafry &038 Zedeck,1980 ) Studies by McGregor, Murphy et al, Bowles and Coates etc explained the various purposes of performance appraisal. About 61% o f organization adopted Performance appraisal by 1950. Performance appraisal developed on the basis of objectives and goal function, thus MBO was evolved. MBO was helpful in setting up goals, which became the standard against which the employees performance was compared. However, MBO was ineffective performance was measured in units. Therefore, behaviorally monitored performance review was introduced.Thus, Behaviorally Anchored Rating System (BARS) was introduced. BARS was designed by Smith and Kendall in 1963. BARS was found to give more accurate rating of performance. Behavior observation scales were then introduced which were intended to improve BARS. (Latham and Wexley, 1977) It was seen that performance appraisal can be used as a motivational tool. The Behavior Maintenance Model presented by Cummings and Swab in 1973, which explained how people become motivated to perform effectively in the organization. 32Similarly, Evans (1986) also presented a model which explained how indivi dual and manager decide a goal and how this goal largely influences the individuals persistence, attention and the strategy he/she adopts to complete the goal. These factors determine his actual performance. When the individuals tasks are achieved then this actual performance is compared with the original goal. Locke(1968) introduced the Goal setting theory which emphasizes the importance of conscious goal levels as determinants of actual performance. Goal setting theory is summarized as follows- a. ard goals produce a higher level of performance than easy goals, b. some specific hard goals produce higher level of output c. behavioral intentions regulate choice behavior. Feedback is another important element in the field of performance appraisal. the feedback which an individual receives is the report of the performance achieved by him/her. 360 degree feedback was introduced which refers to feedback received by an individual through everyone in the organization. 360 degree feedback includes feedback from peers ,sub-ordinates and customers.It is also known as multi-source feedback. 33 Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHOD This section would help understand and explain the reasons behind the choice of the methodology I have adapted for this research The choosing of research methodology depends on the nature of study topic (Creswell, 1994 ). Research objective The research objective was to understand the effectiveness of an appraisal process on the employees. The main purpose of this dissertation was, to study the employees ability to perform well in the industry and to check the impact of performance feedback over their job.Research methods. Quantitative Vs Qualitative. Denzin and Lincoln ( 2000 ) say that, Qualitative research generates the socially constructed nature of reality, the intimate relationship between the researcher and what is studied, and the bunkal constraints that shape inquiry. They seek answers to questions that stress how social experience is created an d given meaning. In constrant, quantitative studies emphasize the measurement and analysis of casual relationships between variables, and not processes. (pg 8) 4 Qualitative research thus has a humanistic element to it, whereas Quantitative research is grounded in mathematical and statistical knowledge. (Gephart,2004) Qualitative research is a representation of peoples mind and, it is interpretative and highly inductive. (Van Maanen, 1998) Another interesting difference between the two methods is, that quantitative techniques require the researcher to produce and verify hypothesis and reduce entities into simple variables for the benefit of understanding and generalizing.Also, it assumes that all occurrences are independent events that have no connection to the surrounding environment. On the other hand, qualitative research attempts to prove and understand phenomena rather than explaining the cause and effect relationship. Further, it believes that all occurrences are linked in som e way to the surrounding environment. (Easterby smith et al,2002) Why qualitative? The goal of qualitative research is to understand the research topic more explicitly, from the perspective of the interviewee, and to understand how and why they have arrived at this perspective. Gephart, 2004) adds that, qualitative research methodology largely depends on recounting, understanding and explaining complex or interrelated phenomena, namely, the methodology is to understand multi-dimensional, dynamic picture of a subject of study. Qualitative research method was ideal for this project, because it gave a deeper understanding of the, given theories and helped in obtaining an edge in knowing the concepts well. As the data obtained through qualitative is the interviewees own responses, it helps in gaining a broader perspective about the topic.The exact responses pertaining to the literature review helps in linking the data well. 35 Research Tactics The tactics used for data collection for th e research are categorise as follows Primary data The research deals with the reaction of the employees after being appraised. Hence , it was necessary to conduct the research through semi unified interviews. Cooper and Schindler (2001) suggest in this context , that if the research is an exploratory study, use of interviews is more appropriated for the researcher to understand and get an in depth view of the topic being explored.Design of interview question . The interview questions were designed, keeping in mind the research objective. Eight questions were designed in accordance with the literature review. The interview questions were categorized into four parts. The first part, reflected the employees basic experience with performance appraisal. The second part, focused on the training aspect of the organization, which forms an important part of the appraisal process. The third part, focused on the direct implications of the appraisal process on the employees life.The last par t was designed to reflect answers relating to motivation and better performance in the organization. The questions designed were open-ended because ,it could give the employee the chance to elaborate his given situation. Easterby-Smith, et al. , (2002) state that, investigators conduct qualitative interview to understand how individuals construct the reality of their situation create from the complex personal framework in order to help explain and predict events in their world. 36 When was the research done? The research was done in mid July to mid August.Data analysis For the data collected in this research through interviews, a framework given by Bryman and Bell(2003) was used. The framework is known as metaphysical consume which is explained as follows. Theoretical Sampling It is a process of data collection for generating theory where the researcher collects and analyzes data and decides what data to collect next and where to find it, in order to develop his theory as it eme rges (Bryman and Bell, 2003. Thus, data was collected from various sources until there was a theoretical saturation.The same guinea pig leads to descriptive content analysis which is discussed in contingent in the next section (Bryman and Bell, 2003, p. 330). Figure Theoretical sampling 37 Secondary research This has been provided through the available research and various reports. This was done by accessing the program library and books, journals, market reports and internet extensively. Limitations Limitations of qualitative research. The big problem with qualitative data is how to condense highly complex and context-bound information into a format which tells a story in a way that is fully convinced to the eader. (Cassell and Symon, 2004) Qualitative research methods are descriptive. Also ,they are subjective in nature which always leads to a kind of research bias. Sometimes, the interviewees were not willing to open up much, towards 38 some question. This would either lead to incomplete information or incorrect information. Another important limitation was time constraint. Due to time constraint, the researcher was not able to take many interviews. Summary of Research methods The research method was done keeping the research objective in mind.The research method adopted for this research was Qualitative research method. Qualitative research method helps to understand multi-dimensional, dynamic picture of a subject of study. The research tactics adopted for the research were done in the form of primary data source and secondary coil data source. Primary data was obtained in the form of structured interviews. The questions designed for these interviews were open ended. The secondary data was obtained in the form of reports, books, journals etc. A theoretical sampling method of Bryman and Bell (2003) was adopted for data analysis method. 9 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA This section is divided into two partsPart A describes the parameters on which the perfo rmance appraisal process is designed in the organisation. The parameters helped the researcher to understand the effectiveness of performance appraisal in the organization. Part B describes the analysis of data. The analysis of data explained in detail the respondents views about the appraisal system PART A COMPANY INFORMATION Following is brief description of the various parameters adopted by the company in order to conduct the formal appraisal system.The appraisal system is conducted twice every year. First, in June and the other in January . The performance appraisal system in the company is conducted on the basis of 5 parameters. 1. craft Acumen 2. pack lead 3. Effective Communication 4. Execution 5. Customer Centricity Business Acumen 1. Business Acumen refers to the ability of the employees to conduct quick and accurate decisions pertaining to the business strategies. Performance appraisal considers Business Acumen as an important tool in analysing the individuals business related activities in the organisation. 40 . People leadership People leaders refers to the employees ability to show lead skills. It also shows whether the employee is able to motivate employees, helps in building up morale of his subordinates. He acts with empathy and ensures better coordination in his team. The company considers this as an important parameter because it helps in knowing the leadership skill of the employee. 3. Effective Communication Communication is an integral part of every organization. The employee should be having good communication skills. He/she should be able to communicate at all levels. . Execution Execution is the process where the employee should be able to execute the given task in a specific period of time. Under this parameter, the employees efficiency and potentiality is considered. His/her prompt reaction to any situation is considered. This parameter also tests an employees capability to handle work load under pressure. 5. Customer centricit y Customer is the King . This parameter focuses on the employees way of handling customers. It checks the employees punctuality in handling the customer and his/her ability to make the customer satisfied.The above parameters are calculated with the help of the following 3 point rating chart. 41 3= Outstanding The employee understands his job very well. Performance is exceptionally good and much higher than the standard set up. Clearly understands the key objectives and goals of the organization and achieves them in time. Efficient and prompt. 2= Meet expectations Performance meets the required expectation. May exceed expectations in areas like communication and customer centricity. right(a) understanding of objectives and goals. = Needs Improvement Performance doesnt meet the expectation and lacks consistency. Lack of understanding of key objectives and goals. Requires additional training and development sessions. PART B .ANALYSIS OF DATA The analysis of data was done on the bas is of the responses obtained through the interview process. The analysis is done by the respondents views over the performance appraisal process present in the company. 42 A entire of 6 respondents agreed to participate in the research. The interview was designed, taking into consideration the research questions.The interview considered four main aspects, which are as followsA. Performance appraisal process B. Training and development C. Feedback D. Impact of performance appraisal A. Performance appraisal process. The questions designed under this section were to understand the performance appraisal process in the organisation. This would give the researcher, a clearer picture of the organisational PA process by presenting exact views of the interviewees. Questions under this section Q 1) Do think it is necessary to have a formal appraisal process in the organisation?Q 2. ) What are your views about the appraisal system in your organization? Responses Q. 1 ) Do think it is necessa ry to have a formal appraisal process in the organisation? Yes. We have a formal appraisal process twice a year in June and January where my manager shares the feedback on the goals defined to achieve by the end of given period. ( answerer no. 1) 43 Yes, it is necessary to conduct a formal appraisal process. It gives a clearer understanding of our objectives and functions and makes us more competent to achieve our goals. ( answerer No. 2) Yes.I have gone through a formal appraisal process about 10 times since 2002. I feel it an essential part of the organization. We, the employees , know our duties well in the organization ,we know what is expected from us and our target goals are laid down for the coming period. ( responsive no. 4) Q 2. ) What are your views about the appraisal system in your organization? The appraisal system is very comprehensive as it focuses our accomplishment summary, strengths/growths, improvement and development needs and plans, Training needs and other cer tifications and potentially career interests.It also rates employees based on people leadership, effective communication and customer centricity. ( Respondent No. 1) I think its important to have formal appraisal system. It not only helps you achieve your long-run goals but also helps you understand where you stand in comparison to your colleagues. There will be lot of other hard working people in organization, who will be working towards the same goal or same position that you want, so this process gives you a more clear path, vision as to what you can do differently that will set you apart from other employees.It generates a tidy competition. (Respondent no. 2) 44 The Appraisal System in my organization is well-organized, both from the Performance Capturing viewpoint as well as from the Review and setting up the goals and expectations of an individual. ( Respondent no. 5) It was seen from the above responses that, the employee were generally happy about the current PA process, because it was designed to help them grow and develop in the organisation. It provided them with the necessary guidance to improve their performance and other key skills in the job.The employees stated that it lead to healthy competition amongst the employees. B. Training and Development The second part of the interview focused on the training skills obtained through the appraisal process. The questions were designed to understand if the organization really requires training and development program and whether it is useful for them to grow in the organisation. Questions asked- Q. 1) Do you think a formal appraisal process should include training and development programs? Why? 45 Q. 2. ) How did the training and development program of the appraisal process help you?Were you satisfied with it? Q. 1)Do you think a formal appraisal process should include training and development programs? Why? Responses to Q1. Yes, an appraisal process should possess training and development processes, because it helps an individual to work on his/her improvement areas which could be addressed by training in appropriate soft or technical skill-set. For example If an individual lacks delegation of work to its peer sub ordinates, then he can be recommended for military mission of Authority training which would enable him to understand the concept and delegate responsibility. Respondent 1) Yes, its important to have training and development programs part of appraisal process. Its important for every employee to understand how the appraisal process works and how are they evaluated. They should be given training so that process is very downright for them and they understand everything. Also once the appraisal is done and employees have given their improvement areas, its important to conduct different development programs to help them work on their improvement areas. (Respondent 4) 46 Yes. The formal appraisal process should include the training and development programs.The main objec tive of an appraisal process is to showcase where an individual stands from the performance and organization expectations point of view, and what are his development needs and GnOs (Goals and Objectives) for the upcoming year. The Trainings and Development programs help and individual to enhance his abilities and bugger off the required skills to meet the expectations/goals set for him by the organization/management and also help his to grow in the organization. (Respondent 3) Q. 2. ) How did the training and development program of the appraisal process help you? Were you satisfied with it?Answers to Q2. The training and development needs were effectuate in some areas unlikely in certain areas like leadership it was not fulfilled based on project, location and time priorities. Its a very costlier affair to organize training onsite and hence had to do a lot of self learning and receiving coaching feedback from assigned coaches. (Respondent 2) Yes, I was satisfied with the training and development programs as it helped me to work on my improvement areas. After going through different training and development programs, my Leadership and People management skills improved a lot.This in turn helped me to manage my team more efficiently, by understanding there needs, by motivating them and helping them to achieve their individual goals. This helped us to meet our targets set by the organization and also gave production benefit to the Customer. (Respondent 5) 47 I have attended various programs/training in my career till date. They have always helped me to enhance my abilities and skills . For example, the Six Sigma Green Belt Training and the slope Quality Trainings have given me a vision to think about Quality in every task we do and thus improvize the performance.The Coaching Manager and Leadership trainings have helped me to emerge as a better colleague, Team Lead and a mentors to my peers and subordinates. I have been pretty satisfied with these training and would look forward to the opportunities to attend more of them. (Respondent 3) The overall response in this context, was pretty positive. The employees thought that training and development formed an important element in the process. However, one respondent highlighted a different point where training and development was not provided.The training guidelines helped them to understand their organizational objectives and functions well. All the respondents were satisfied with the training and development program because it helped them to enhance their skills in the job. C. Feedback The questions designed under this section helped to obtain the immediate reaction of the appraisal system. This was required in understanding how the employees feedback is in the organization. These are the following questions 48 Q 1. What is your immediate response after being appraised? Q. 2.Was your performance discussed in detail? Were any improvements suggested? Q 1. What is your immediate response afte r being appraised? The responses obtained were as followed Its always to good to know your strengths and your improvement areas. It provides platform to work on areas for the coming period. (Respondent 2) After appraisal I know what are my strong areas, which sets me apart from others and I have to keep working on that. It also helped me to identify my improvement areas, which I have to focus so that I can grow in the Organization and achieve my goal (respondent 3)This depends upon how the discussion goes along with my managers and appraisers. If the Managers convince me about