Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Slavery in the United States In the history of the United States nothing has brought more shame to the face of America than the cold, premeditated method of keeping black people in captivity. People from England who migrated to America used many different methods to enslave black people and passed them down through the children. These methods were quite effective, so effective that these Ã¢â¬Å"slavesÃ¢â¬ were kept in captivity for over two hundred years in this country. It was the rain of terror that kept black people in fear of their lives for so long. The invention of the gun back in the fifth-teenth century was the main reason that these people were able to go to another continent and enslave so many people. These people from Africa were mistreated very badly right from the start both mentally and physically. They were packed very tightly on ships for months at a time chained to each other with no place to go to the bathroom, little water to drink, and hardly anything to eat. As the population constantly increased in the colonies during the 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s, so did the demand for slavery especially in the southern colonies where the big plantations were. These plantations were very lucrative since the owners had free manual labor and they could keep all the profit from the crops for themselves. They also had to justify what they were doing to themselves so what they did was tell themselves that these slaves were barbaric and not smart enough to be civilized. These slave owners also owned huge houses in the middle of their plantations and thought of themselves as noblemen. In acuality, it was the slaves who were living nobly while the Europeans were living barbaricly. The Europeans who owned slaves also thought that the slaves were not smart enough because they could not speak English and they did not have a written language. This was proven not to be true either because the second generation of slaves learned the English language with no tr... Free Essays on Slavery in the United States Free Essays on Slavery in the United States Slavery in the United States In the history of the United States nothing has brought more shame to the face of America than the cold, premeditated method of keeping black people in captivity. People from England who migrated to America used many different methods to enslave black people and passed them down through the children. These methods were quite effective, so effective that these Ã¢â¬Å"slavesÃ¢â¬ were kept in captivity for over two hundred years in this country. It was the rain of terror that kept black people in fear of their lives for so long. The invention of the gun back in the fifth-teenth century was the main reason that these people were able to go to another continent and enslave so many people. These people from Africa were mistreated very badly right from the start both mentally and physically. They were packed very tightly on ships for months at a time chained to each other with no place to go to the bathroom, little water to drink, and hardly anything to eat. As the population constantly increased in the colonies during the 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s, so did the demand for slavery especially in the southern colonies where the big plantations were. These plantations were very lucrative since the owners had free manual labor and they could keep all the profit from the crops for themselves. They also had to justify what they were doing to themselves so what they did was tell themselves that these slaves were barbaric and not smart enough to be civilized. These slave owners also owned huge houses in the middle of their plantations and thought of themselves as noblemen. In acuality, it was the slaves who were living nobly while the Europeans were living barbaricly. The Europeans who owned slaves also thought that the slaves were not smart enough because they could not speak English and they did not have a written language. This was proven not to be true either because the second generation of slaves learned the English language with no tr...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Healthcare Outline Essay Example Healthcare Outline Essay Healthcare Outline Essay Rough draft due: Tuesday, November 2 Final Draft due: Tuesday, November 9 Length: 5-6 pages, double-spaced MLA format Sources: 3 sources through ASU Libraries minimumÃ¢â¬ ¦Other reliable (i. e. no Wikipedia, Dictionary. com sources or sources of that nature) sources are also allowed. Corresponding Reading: Ch. 8 in Inventing Arguments For your third writing topic, you will write a 5-6 page essay during which you evaluate the current proposed H. R. 962-Affordable Health Care for America Act. You can read the current bill here: opencongress. org/bill/111-h3962/text Your instructions: In this essay, you are asked to examine and evaluate the proposed Health Reform Bill which just passed the house. In order to successfully complete this evaluation, you will need to establish for yourself some background into the ongoing health care debate. You will need to research the topic thoroughly. Once you have established some frame of reference, you must examine the current reform bill. Take noteswhat is changing? Who will these changes affect? You will not be able to respond to every point of the bill, but do address a few of the major ones. Develop an argument for evaluation. Is the bill going to benefit the working class? Harm the middle class? Is it going to provide much-needed changes for the uninsured? Derail the economy? Formulate a perspective and then ask yourself, Ã¢â¬Å"how do I prove this? Ã¢â¬ Once you have a good understanding of the topic, find reputable sources to support your stance in the argument. Make sure you verify the credibility of all sources. A few questions to ask as you are getting startedÃ¢â¬ ¦ Who/What does the bill stand to harm? Who will it benefit? (Most likely, you will need to do extensive research before you will have an answer to these questions. ) What is the BillÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose or intent? Is this purpose a good one? Why or why not? Despite its intent, what are its hidden effects? Has the Bill addressed all necessary aspects of reform (as determined by you)? What has the Bill failed to include? Establishing Strong Criteria: The Key to a Successful Evaluation Once you decide whether you are going to give the bill a positive or negative evaluation- ask yourself why. You should have definite and logical answers that you can support with sources. These answers should help you establish the criteria for your argument. Criteria can: reinforce shared assumptions provide logical analogies appeal to logic appeal to value provide personal testimony Required Elements: An intro section which includes an exordium (attention grabber), a narratio (brief background information which explains significance of exordium). A definitive thesis statement which includes the main argument and the criteria on which you are basing your evaluation. Fully developed discussion of your topic, which includes information from research material. All information must be properly cited according to MLA standards. You must paraphrase and cite from a minimum of 3 ASU research articles. Articles must be from ASU Libraries research database. Additional credible sources may be used. A developed rebuttal refute section.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Marketing - Essay Example In this regard, the questions that need answers for successful marketing educational products include: The market is diverse and dynamic, and so would be the products offered in that market (Pride & Ferrell, 2012). Product customization might highly be necessary, owing to the various modes and programs of teaching and learning employed by different teachers, learners and schools. For a start, competitors may be lacking, but with successful business establishment, they are likely to emerge. The market is also subject to changing variables due to reforms and improvements undertaken in the education sector from time to time. Marketing products to married couples who have no children would have to account for individual coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s tastes and preferences. The situation is different when it comes to couples with children, or even empty-nester couples. For a married couple with no children, likely products to be marketed to them include family life products, gifts and kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ products in the anticipation of children. This coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s buying decisions are guided by future expectations and plans for a bigger family. For this couple, it is likely that expenditure exacerbates as savings decline. On the other hand, the empty-nester coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s buying decisions are less influenced by family size, but are guided by savings rather than
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
INTERNAL MARKET LAW - Essay Example It is done by having Member States agree to common economic policies surrounding the movement of the factors of economy. This is a good thing, since Member States will have increased movement for their products. However, it also means that such environments are highly competitive, and a lot of companies can suffer great loss if they cannot keep up with the challenges of the competition. It is also very difficult to form a monopoly, and that is a good thing, because the consumers get the best value for the products at lower cost because a lot of companies compete to get the attention of the consumers, rather than having just one company dictating the price for maximum profit and having no choice for the customers of which products to use. Products and services are also given the chance to reach the places where they are most valued, without additional barriers, reaching their maximum efficiency. It is mainly achieved by prohibition. Article 25 EC (cited in Weatherill, S 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"Cases and Materials on EU LawÃ¢â¬ p. 319) states that Ã¢â¬Å"Customs duties on imports and exports and charges having equivalent effect shall be prohibited between Member States. This prohibition shall also apply to customs duties of a fiscal nature.Ã¢â¬ There is no Ã¢â¬Å"customs control at the borders of Member StatesÃ¢â¬ (Four Freedoms (European Union), viewed 23 April, 2010), but rather, the Ã¢â¬Å"Physical controls of imports and exports now occur at the traderÃ¢â¬â¢s premisesÃ¢â¬ (Four Freedoms (European Union), viewed 23 April, 2010). Furthermore, Article 90 (cited in Weatherill, S 2007, p.319) shows that Ã¢â¬Å"No member State shall impose, directly or indirectly, on the products of other Member States any internal taxation of any kind in excess of that imposed directly or indirectly on similar domestic products.Ã¢â¬ It consists of prohibitions imposed on Member States of
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Women in Political Leadership Essay In this paper I will examine female political leadership. As a male growing up with a single mom that worked hard for equality, I understand firsthand the struggle that some women are met with. If we analyze the recent years, we can see that there has been numerous women that are soaring into leadership ranks in government. I find the leadership tactics of women prime ministers and heads of state; to have patterns that have emerged for women engaging in political positions in different section of the globe, when it comes to wealth, approach and communication relations. In addition, I will be making a distinction between the leadership techniques of women politicians within conventional societies with those directing resistance actions, as a result having a diverse resources and limitations in the way of organization and communication opportunities that are obtainable. Therefore, this paper will also confer the responsibility of ethical investment as a source for female opposition leaders, in specific in undemocratic framework. Female Heads of Government and the Use of ForceÃ There is a great significance of the connection involving a high percentage of women in the legislative body and reduction in military expenditure, sex does affect this. Though, it is the widespread number of women in government that have a larger impression on military expenses than the sex of the particular leader. Just as the election of one African American president, has not ended a history of racism and tumultuous race relations, one female in office cannot make a notably change in the patterns of the administration. It will take an increase in the women legislative body of government that we will confirm whether there is a progression in the direction of reduced militarism. Gallagher (1993) projected three constructive conclusions of more women coming into the political arena: more collaborative policies, more diplomatic strategies and directives, and more democratic viewpoints and ideals within the government.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Clay Loading and Dispersion Effects on the Rheological Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposites :: essays research papers
Clay Loading and Dispersion Effects on the Rheological Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposites The objective of this work is to characterize the influence of clay loading and dispersion effects on the rheological properties of unsaturated polyester composites. Toughened unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites were synthesized by the blending of delaminated clay with unsaturated polyester. Rheological behavior is shown to be strongly influenced by clay loading and the extent of clay dispersion in the polymer matrix. Transition from liquid-like behavior to solid-like behavior shifts to significantly higher solids loading at higher shear rates which may be due to the alignment of the particles in the direction of flow at high shear rates. SEM micrographs are used to display the extent of intercalation and dispersion of the clay within the polymer matrix. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1.1 Definition Polymer/clay nanocomposites display a change in composition and structure over a nanometer length scale and have been shown to present considerable property enhancements relative to conventionally scaled composites. Layered silicates dispersed as a reinforcing phase in an engineering polymer matrix are one of the most important of such Ã¢â¬Å"hybrid organic-inorganic nanocompositesÃ¢â¬ . Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites containing low levels of exfoliated clays, such as montmorillonite and vermiculite have a structure consisting of platelets with at least one dimension in the nanometer range. One of the most important features of polymeric materials is the possibility of controlling their macroscopic physical properties by tailored manipulation of their structures at a nanoscopic scale. To influence the interactions that govern the mechanical properties of polymers, specific nanoscopic scale reinforcement is efficient and beneficial. For example, montmorillonite clay pro vides such reinforcement through the interaction of polymer chains with the charged surfaced of clay lamellae . The use of organoclays as precursors to nanocomposite formation has been extended into various polymer systems including epoxies, polyurethanes, polyimides, nitrile rubber, polyesters, polypropylene, polystyrene and polysiloxanes, among others. Even a variety of inorganic materials, such as glass fibers, talc, calcium carbonate, and clay minerals, have been successfully used as additives or reinforcements to improve the various properties of polymers [3-10]. 1.2 Structure The optimal properties of nanocomposites arise as the clay nanolayers are uniformly dispersed (exfoliated) in the polymer matrix, as opposed to being aggregated or phase separated as tactoids or simply intercalated. As nanolayer exfoliation becomes achieved, there is a trend in the improvement in desired properties that is manifested as an increase in tensile properties, enhancement of barrier properties, a decrease in solvent uptake, an increase in thermal stability and flame retardance, among others [11-12].
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Assess the importance of school factors such as racism and pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ response to racism in creating ethnic differences in educational achievement. Racism is a system of beliefs that defines people as superior or inferior, and justifies their unequal treatment, on the basis of biological differences such as skin colour. Individual racism refers to the prejudiced views and discriminatory behaviour of individuals. Institutional racism exists when the routine ways an organisation operates have racist outcomes regardless of the intentions of the individuals within it. Racism and pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ response to racism are internal factors which means they happen within schools and the education system they may cause ethnic differences in educational achievement which refers to the differences in educational achievement between the ethnic groups within schools for example, Black and Pakistani pupils do worst at GCSE and Indians and Chinese do best as supported by the DfES (2007). Even though internal factors may have contributed to ethnic differences in educational achievement, external factors outside of the education system such as pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ being materially deprived may also affect ethnic differences in achievement. The item seems to support the proposition that school factors such as racism and pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ response to racism may cause ethnic differences in educational achievement as the item states Ã¢â¬ËBangladeshi, black and Pakistani pupils achieve less well than other pupils at all stages of education which is supported by the DfES (2007) that found on average just over a half of all Bangladeshi, black and Pakistani girls left school with five or more GCSE grades A*-C. However this was a lot lower for boys with only a half of Bangladeshi boys leaving school with five or more GCSE grades A*-C and less than this for Pakistani and black boys. The item uses Gillborn and Youdell (2000) to explain these differences as being the result of teacher racism this is supported by Jenny Bourne (1994) who found, schools tend to see black pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ as a threat and would label them negatively, leading eventually to exclusion. They item also suggests that that gender differences play an important part in creating ethnic differences in educational achievement as it has been found that among white and black working-class pupils girls do better than boys, but among Asians boys do better than girls. Overall the item seems to believe that factors within school such as labelling and teacher racism lead to ethnic minority pupils being treated differently therefore being unable tofulfil their true potential as they feel as though they are less important and less time and attention is given to them leading to ethnic differences in educational achievement. As a result of negative racist labels, teachers may treat ethnic minority pupils differently, disadvantaging them and bringing about a self-fulfilling prophecy that leads to under-achievement as Gillborn and Youdell (2000) found teachers had Ã¢â¬Ëracialised expectationsÃ¢â¬â¢ about black pupils and saw their behaviour as threatening and black pupils felt as though they were underestimated by teachers. Gillborn and Youdell conclude that conflict between white teachers and black pupils stems from teachers racist stereotypes rather than pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ actual behaviour. This can cause under-achievement because it leads to: high levels of black boys being excluded and black pupils being placed in lower sets or streams. This study clearly supports the proposition that school factors create ethnic differences in educational achievement as the study suggests that teachers low expectations of black pupils leads to them being treated differently and oppressed by teachers leading them under achieving. Research has also found that Asian pupils are also stereotyped by teachers as Wright (1992) found Asian pupils were stereotyped by their teachers and treated differently: They were seen as a problem and were often ignored and teachers assumed that Asian pupils would have a poor grasp of English and would use simplistic words when teaching them. This study is a little surprising as Asian pupils have the highest percentage of pupils leaving school with five or more GCSE grades A*-C. Pupils may react in a variety of different ways to racist labelling in school, including forming or joining pupil subcultures this may lead to the under-achievement of ethnic minority groups creating ethnic differences in educational achievement. Sewell (1998) found that black boys adopted a range of responses to teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ racist labelling of them as rebellious and anti-school. One reaction was to join a subculture known as the Ã¢â¬ËrebelsÃ¢â¬â¢ they were a small but highly visible minority of black pupils. They rejected the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and rules and conformed instead to the stereotype of the Ã¢â¬Ëblack macho ladÃ¢â¬â¢. They despised both white boys and conformist black boys. Their aim was to achieve the status of Ã¢â¬Ëstreet hoodÃ¢â¬â¢. OÃ¢â¬â¢Donnell and Sharpe (2000) found a macho Ã¢â¬ËwarriorÃ¢â¬â¢ response similar to the Ã¢â¬ËrebelsÃ¢â¬â¢ among some Asian boys. However, despite only a small minority of black and Asian boys actually fitting the stereotype of Ã¢â¬Ëmacho ladÃ¢â¬â¢,teachers tended to see all in this way. This resulted in the under-achievement of many boys, as a result of discrimination of teachers. However studies show that not all minority ethnic pupils who are negatively labelled accept and conform to labels. Some remain committed to succeeding despite racist labelling: Fuller (1984) studied a group of high achieving black girls in year 11 of a London comprehensive. The girls maintained a positive self-image by rejecting teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ stereotypes of them. They recognised the value of education and were determined to achieve. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seek teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s approval and remained friends with black girls in lower streams. This study would oppose the proposition as this study suggests that not everyone that is labelled in a negative and racist way conforms to their label or accepts that they will not achieve within education. Many sociologists argue that although the racist labelling practised by some teachers is important, it is not an adequate explanation for the widespread ethnic differences found in achievement. Instead, they argue, institutional racism must be focused on. Institutional racism is discrimination against ethnic minorities that is built into the way institutions such as schools and colleges operate on a routine basis, rather than the intentions of individual teachers. The ethnocentric curriculum is an important example of institutional racism. Ã¢â¬ËEthnocentricÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to attitudes or policies that prioritise a culture or one particular ethnic group whist disregarding others. Many sociologists have argued that the curriculum within British schools is ethnocentric. Troyna and Williams note that it gives priority to white culture and the English language. Whilst Ball sees the history curriculum in British schools as recreating a Ã¢â¬Ëmythical age and past gloriesÃ¢â¬â¢, while at the same time ignoring the history of black and Asian people. This may result in minority ethnic group pupils feeling that they and their culture are not valued in education and this diminishes their sense of self-esteem, which has a negative effect on their educational achievement as they feel as though they are worthless causing them to under-achieve. The CRE (1992) study of Ã¢â¬ËJayleighÃ¢â¬â¢ school found that Asian pupils were consistently placed in lower sets and were less likely to be entered for exams causing them to under-achieve resulting in ethnic differences in educational achievement. Similarly, the workings of the Ã¢â¬ËA-C economyÃ¢â¬â¢ meant that black pupils were placed in lower sets and had less chance of gaining qualifications. Even though internal factors may have contributed to ethnic differences in educational achievement, external factors outside of the education system such as may also affect ethnic differences in achievement. Cultural deprivation theory claims that the under-achievement of some ethnic groups is caused by inadequate socialisation in the home. This explanation has two main aspects: Intellect and language skills Ã¢â¬â cultural deprivation theory claims that children from low-income black families lack intellectual stimulation. As a result, they fail to develop reasoning and problem-solving skills. Bereiter and Engelmann claim that the language of poorer black families is ungrammatical and disjointed. As a result, their children are unable to express abstract ideas- a major barrier to educational success. Some claim that children who do not speak English at home may be held back educationally. This could cause the ethnic differences within educational achievement as according to cultural deprivation theorists ethnic minority pupils would lack the ability to succeed at exams. The other aspect of the explanation of cultural deprivation contributing to under-achievement is attitudes, values and family structure. Differences in attitudes and values towards education may be the result of socialisation. Most children are socialised into the mainstream culture, which instils competiveness and a desire to achieve, thus equipping them for success in education However some children are not socialised in this way and the lack of a male role model for many African-Caribbean boys may encourage them to turn to an anti-educational macho Ã¢â¬Ëgang cultureÃ¢â¬â¢. Murray (1984) argues that the high rate of lone parents and a lack of positive male role models lead to the under-achievement of some minority pupils causing ethnic differences in educational achievement. This is support by Moynihan (1965) who argues that the absence of a male role mode produces inadequately socialised children who fail at school. Cultural deprivation theorists also claim that the subculture into which some black children are socialised is fatalistic and focused on immediate gratification, resulting in a lack of motivation to succeed. The belief that cultural deprivation causes ethnic differences in education would not support the proposition as cultural deprivation is an external factor and the proposition suggest that factors within school are the main cause of ethnic differences in achievement. Material deprivation is the lack of physical or economic resources that are essential for normal life in society. Material deprivation explanations of ethnic differences in achievement argue that educational failure is the result of material factors such as poor housing and low income. Ethnic minorities are more likely to face these problems. For example Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are more likely than whites to be poor this would lead to ethnic differences in achievement as some ethnic minorities may lack the necessary resources to achieve educational success. Also for many minorities overcrowding is an issue leading to many pupils being unable to revise or suffering from sleepless nights. The lowest achieving ethnic groups are those with the lowest social class position proving that class as well as ethnic background is also an issue in ethnic differences in educational achievement. In conclusion internal factors such as racism and pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ response to racism clearly are an important factor in ethnic differences in achievement as the way pupils are treated within school could lead to them feeling as though they do not belong they will therefore resent school and everything it stands for leading to the failure of examinations and then being classed as under achievers and creating ethnic differences in educational achievement. However external factors also contribute to the ethnic differences in educational success as if a student is to achieve within education they will have had to have been adequately socialised into a competitive culture that strives for success. They will have also have had to be surrounded by role models and equipped with the necessary resources such as educational activities and quality housing to be able to achieve their full potential. While these factors clearly affect pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ achievement, racism in wider society may be bigger cause. Members of minority groups face direct and indirect discrimination at work, within the housing market and within education. As a result, they are more likely to have low pay or be unemployed, and this affects childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s educational opportunities as they will feel as they will never amount to anything and are constantly being held back because of the colour of their skin or where they have come from.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"This should be sent to a journalÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Very good work, but IÃ¢â¬â¢m not sure why Alan Bundy hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t written this? Ã¢â¬ Anonymous review: Ã¢â¬Å"Clearly the author fails to understands WalshÃ¢â¬â¢s previous work on this topicÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1st Lesson Ã¢â¬ ¢ DonÃ¢â¬â¢t lose heart Ã¢â¬ ¢ Even if you do everything right, reviewing is imperfect Good papers will be rejected But try to learn from your knock-backs! Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Why you? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Academic career Ã¢â¬ ¢ Publish or perish Ã¢â¬ ¢ Have an impact Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Communicate your results Many have not had the impact they deserve for being bad writers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Writing is fun! Outline Ã¢â¬ ¢ How to get your paper rejected Ã¢â¬ ¢ There are many traps even experienced researchers make Myself very much included Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hints about how to write a paper Ã¢â¬ ¢ Writing is a craft not a science! How to be rejected Ã¢â¬ ¢ Submit over-length Ã¢â¬ ¢ Blind man: send in 7 pages even though the instructions clearly say 5 Once they see quality of work, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be pleased you sent in more material Ã¢â¬ ¢ How to be rejected Submit over-length Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diplomatic immunity: put extra 2 pages in appendix Appendices clearly donÃ¢â¬â¢t count Similarly, bibliography doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t count Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ How to be rejected Ã¢â¬ ¢ Submit over-length Ã¢â¬ ¢ LaTeX hacker: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ change from 11 to 9 point font squeeze inter-line space Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ No one will ever notice How to be rejected Ã¢â¬ ¢ Submit late Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Deadlines are meant for everyone else Review schedules have plenty of slack Your paper is worth the wait! How to be rejected Ã¢â¬ ¢ You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have room for space wasters like: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Motivation, Background, Related work Ã¢â¬ ¢ Why do review forms always have these on them anyway? How to be rejected Ã¢â¬ ¢ Annoy reader/reviewer Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Proof is trivial, when it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t Prove the trivial Fail to cite their work Only cite yourself How to be rejected Ã¢â¬ ¢ Annoy reader/reviewer Ã¢â¬ ¢ DonÃ¢â¬â¢t bother to spell check Ã¢â¬ ¢ What do computers know about spelling anyway? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Use all the old cliches Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"There has been a lot of interest recently in global constraints. Ã¢â¬ How to be rejected Ã¢â¬ ¢ Annoy reader/reviewer Ã¢â¬ ¢ Be pompous, boring, Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ This is science not literature guys, who said it should be fun? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Be overly formal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Theorems and formulas add weight How to be rejected Ã¢â¬ ¢ Annoy reader/reviewer Ã¢â¬ ¢ Make them really work Ã¢â¬ ¢ After all, these are dif? cult concepts and it took you some time Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ignore reviews Ã¢â¬ ¢ Just keep sending paper in, eventually it will be accepted How to write a paper Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hints about how to write Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Preparation Writing itself Ethics Preparation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Read, read, read! Ã¢â¬ ¢ To learn how to write, read a lot Ã¢â¬ ¢ I spend over 20% of my time reading Ã¢â¬ ¢ 1 day/week in library Read, Read, Read Ã¢â¬ ¢ Related literature Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ So you can cite it So you donÃ¢â¬â¢t re-invent wheels So you know what others think are important research questions Read, Read, Read Ã¢â¬ ¢ Other conference/journal papers where you intend to publish Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ So you learn the Ã¢â¬Å"houseÃ¢â¬ style So you can place your work within the bigger picture So you learn how to ask good questions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Read, Read, Read Ã¢â¬ ¢ Any sort of literature Ã¢â¬ ¢ Magazines, novels, biographies, Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Writing is a skill, learn from others Ã¢â¬ ¢ I read approx one novel/week as a way of trying to learn how to write And I have the luxury of writing in my own language! Ã¢â¬ ¢ Review, Review, Review Ã¢â¬ ¢ Review as much as you can Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ So you see good/bad writing So you see the newest results (but see ethics) So you ask yourself good questions Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the contribution here? What are the weaknesses? Ã¢â¬ ¦ Write, Write, Write Ã¢â¬ ¢ The best preparation to writing is to write Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Writing gets easier the more you do it Writing is easier if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve drafted much of what you already need Writing is the best way to organize your thoughts Writing is a good way to record what you have done. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Work out the timetable Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rushed papers frequently rejected Late papers are almost always rejected If you always write to deadlines, writing will seem more painful than it is Writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Work out the message Ã¢â¬ ¢ You should be able to convey this in one sentence Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"We propose a new global constraint, provide a ? ltering algorithm and show it useful on some standard benchmarksÃ¢â¬ Writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Work out the message Ã¢â¬ ¢ You should be able to convey this in one sentence Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"We identify an important class of symmetry, and show how to break itÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Write to the message! Writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Distribute the work Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Play to your strengths If you have a native speaker, have them write intro/conclusion Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Write to length Ã¢â¬ ¢ Brutally cut papers are frequently rejected Writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Structure paper before you write it I write template for paper with sections and subsection headings ? rst Ã¢â¬ ¢ Intro, Background, Theoretical results, Empirical results, Related work, Conclusions Writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Start where you are most happy Often write from the middle outwards Ã¢â¬ ¢ Theoretical results, Experiments, Ã¢â¬ ¦ , Conclusions, Introduction, Abstract Writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rule of Three Say everything 3 times! Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introduce idea (introduction) Develop idea (body of paper) Summarize result (conclusions) Ã¢â¬ ¢ But donÃ¢â¬â¢t copy verbatim the same text! Title Ã¢â¬ ¢ Make it meaningful and brief Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ DonÃ¢â¬â¢t make a joke Remember someone reading reference needs to be able to work out likely contents Good: the TSP phase transition Bad: Easy Problems are sometimes Hard Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Abstract Ã¢â¬ ¢ Executive summary Ã¢â¬ ¢ Try for one sentence or so on: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Motivation Method Key result Conclusions Introduction Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the problem? Why is it interesting? What are your contributions? What is the outline of what you will show? Introduction Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lure the reader in a with a good ? rst sentence Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bad: There has been a lot of work recently on phase transition behaviourÃ¢â¬ ¦ Good: Global constraints are central to the success of constraint programmingÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Background Ã¢â¬ ¢ Often need to set scene Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ De? ne formalism Get reader up to speed Identify research problem Body of Paper Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Derive theoretical results Propose new algorithm Describe system engineered Ã¢â¬ ¦ Results Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bullet proof paper Ã¢â¬ ¢ Theoretical results Ã¢â¬ ¢ Experiments only provide a limited view Ã¢â¬ ¢ Experimental results Ã¢â¬ ¢ Theory doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t show if results are useful in practice. Related work Ã¢â¬ ¢ Has many purposes Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ You give proper credit to prior work You are not re-inventing wheel You can compare what you do with what has been done before Conclusions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Remind reader of what you have done Place work in wider context Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"What general lessons might be learnt from this study? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Flag all the exciting open research directions Acknowledgements Ã¢â¬ ¢ Thank all who have helped you Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provided code, data sets, Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Thank ? nancial sponsors Writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Keep it simple! Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Active, not passive Present, not past or future Long words Short sentences Writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Avoid temptation to include every result you have Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Paper needs to be coherent Paper needs to be understandable Many papers are rejected for having too many results! Ethics of Writing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Authorship Citation Submission Publication Authorship Ã¢â¬ ¢ Who should be an author? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Anyone who has made a signi? cant contribution May not have written any text! Always err on the side of caution Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Authorship Ã¢â¬ ¢ Who should be an author? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ask! YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll be surprised how often people refuse You can be sure theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll not work with you again if they feel they should be Authorship Ã¢â¬ ¢ Should my advisor be an author? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ In ? rst few years of thesis, probably yes .. Once you graduate, you should (be able to) write papers on your own Again, ask! Ã¢â¬ ¢ Citation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cite all relevant work Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reviews always ask about Related Work YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll want them to cite you ItÃ¢â¬â¢s central to the scienti? c method Ã¢â¬ ¢ We stand on the shoulders of others Citation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Do I cite myself for a blind review? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Yes! You must credit all previous work Either cite [Author, 2004] Or write Ã¢â¬Å"As Walsh has shown previously [Walsh 2004] Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ Submission Ã¢â¬ ¢ Can I submit to multiple conferences? Ã¢â¬ ¢ WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the deal with the disclaimer (Ã¢â¬ This paper is not under review ..Ã¢â¬ )? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Can I submit to a journal immediately? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ No hard and fast rules My rule, once reviews are back and paper is effectively in press Ã¢â¬ ¦ Publication Ã¢â¬ ¢ Can I publish my conference paper as it is in a journal? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Probably not, even though conference is not archival Most journals ask you to extend conference paper substantially Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Proofs, more experiments, Ã¢â¬ ¦ Final words Ã¢â¬ ¢ It takes time to learn how to write Ã¢â¬ ¢ DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be put off if at ? rst your have papers rejected All of us have papers rejected Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Spend time learning how to write Ã¢â¬ ¢ It will be worth the investment.
Friday, November 8, 2019
In the classic Christian allegory DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Inferno, the spirit Virgil guides Dante the pilgrim through the nine circles of hell. Each Circle is reserved for a certain type of sinner, such examples include the Second (Lustful), the Seventh (Violent), and the Eighth(simple fraud/malice). The reason behind the hierarchy of hell in this book is because each sinner receives a punishment that has certain significance to the sin committed, either by an outside agent of torture, a demon, or within themselves An example of an outside agent of torture being utilized is in the Second Circle. Virgil and Dante see various naked shades spun around in a constant hurricane (p. 110). These were the lustful, and included in this ring were many people, ranging from the empress Semiramus (p. 111) to the adulterer Francesca (p. 113). The significance of this punishment is that their actions do not indicate a tranquil demeanor and that the sinners are oblivious to common sense (p. 115) In the Seventh Circle, there are 3 rings for different types of violence; one of them is the Wood of the Suicides. As their punishment, they were to exist as trees (p. 186-7) and the only way they can speak is if a demon breaks off a branch, which causes much pain. As an addend to their suffering, on judgment day, they will not be able to use their bodies, for they will hang Ã¢â¬Å"on a thorn of itÃ¢â¬â¢s own alien shadeÃ¢â¬ (p. 189). The punishment is significant in that they used pain as an outlet in life, so it would be their only outlet in the afterlife. Furthermore, because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t respect their physical form on earth, they can never receive it again in hell (p. 193). In the Eighth Circle of Hell, there are 10 bolgias reserved for different types of fraud. The 10th Bolgia is reserved for the falsifiers. As their punishment, they were afflicted with different illnesses (p. 337). They were divided into 4 distinct categories, the alchemists, who had leprosy (p. 338-9),... Free Essays on Divine Retribution In The Inferno Free Essays on Divine Retribution In The Inferno In the classic Christian allegory DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Inferno, the spirit Virgil guides Dante the pilgrim through the nine circles of hell. Each Circle is reserved for a certain type of sinner, such examples include the Second (Lustful), the Seventh (Violent), and the Eighth(simple fraud/malice). The reason behind the hierarchy of hell in this book is because each sinner receives a punishment that has certain significance to the sin committed, either by an outside agent of torture, a demon, or within themselves An example of an outside agent of torture being utilized is in the Second Circle. Virgil and Dante see various naked shades spun around in a constant hurricane (p. 110). These were the lustful, and included in this ring were many people, ranging from the empress Semiramus (p. 111) to the adulterer Francesca (p. 113). The significance of this punishment is that their actions do not indicate a tranquil demeanor and that the sinners are oblivious to common sense (p. 115) In the Seventh Circle, there are 3 rings for different types of violence; one of them is the Wood of the Suicides. As their punishment, they were to exist as trees (p. 186-7) and the only way they can speak is if a demon breaks off a branch, which causes much pain. As an addend to their suffering, on judgment day, they will not be able to use their bodies, for they will hang Ã¢â¬Å"on a thorn of itÃ¢â¬â¢s own alien shadeÃ¢â¬ (p. 189). The punishment is significant in that they used pain as an outlet in life, so it would be their only outlet in the afterlife. Furthermore, because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t respect their physical form on earth, they can never receive it again in hell (p. 193). In the Eighth Circle of Hell, there are 10 bolgias reserved for different types of fraud. The 10th Bolgia is reserved for the falsifiers. As their punishment, they were afflicted with different illnesses (p. 337). They were divided into 4 distinct categories, the alchemists, who had leprosy (p. 338-9),...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Conservative John Birch Society Was Ridiculed But Had Political Impact The John Birch Society was a political group on the extreme right that emerged in the late 1950s, determined to continue the anti-communist crusade of the late Senator Joseph McCarthy. The organization took positions which mainstream America regarded as outlandish.Ã As a result, it was often mocked and satirized. The organization, which took its name from an American killed by the communist Chinese at the end of World War II, was founded in 1958 by Robert Welch, who had made a fortune in the candy business. Welch organized the group into many regional chapters whichÃ spread his offbeat views while exerting political influence at the local level. In early 1960s the John Birch Society was embroiled in a number of newsworthy controversies. And in the 1964 campaign of Barry Goldwater the influence of the groups hardcore ideology was evident. Historian Richard Hofstadter, in a famous 1964 essay titled The Paranoid Style In American Politics, cited the John Birch Society as a modern example of a political group using fear and a feeling of persecution as an organizing principle. Despite criticism from the mainstream, the group continued to grow. In 1968, on the 10th anniversary of its founding, the New York Times, in a front-page article, noted that it claimed to have 60,000 to 100,000 members. It was producing a radio show that aired on 100 stations nationwide, had opened its own chain of bookstores, and was provided staunch anti-communist speakers to address groups. Over time the John Birch Society seemed to fade into obscurity. Yet some of the extremist positions, as well as the tactics of the organization, wendedÃ their way into more mainstream conservative political groups. Traces of the groups ideology can be spotted in conservative circles today. Accusations from conservative pundits during the Trump administration that a Deep State is subverting democracy areÃ eerily similar to conspiracy theories about hidden forces behind the U.S. government promoted by the John Birch Society decades earlier. And talk of globalists manipulating the American economy echoes talk of pernicious internationalists in John Birch Society literature. Founding of the John Birch Society Following the death of Senator Joseph McCarthy in 1957, his followers, who fervently believed the United States was not only threatened, but actively infiltrated, by a worldwide communist conspiracy, were adrift. A businessman in Massachusetts, Robert Welch, who had made his fortune by organizing distribution channels in the candy business, called a meeting of other anti-communist activists. At a two-day gathering at a home in Indiana, Welch laid out his plans. He claimed the other attendees were 11 businessmen who had traveled from all regions of the United States, though they were never identified. In a rambling monologue, portions of which were later published and distributed, Welch essentially gave his version of world history. He asserted that a group that formed in Bavaria in the late 1700s, called the Illuminati, had helped spur the French Revolution and other world events, including World War I. Welch claimed that a secret group of international bankers had created the American Federal Reserve system, and controlled the American economy. Welchs exotic and convoluted theories of history seemed unlikely to gain acceptance with a wide audience. Yet his plan was to couple his dire warnings of secret agendas with the organizational skills he had developed in his business career. In essence, Welch proposed creating local chapters of the John Birch Society which would function much the way a neighborhood store would have retailed candy. His political ideas, geared to an audience of wary Americans during the Cold War, would be promoted at the local level. An early Cold War incident inspired the name of Welchs new organization. While researching a book, Welch had come across the story of an American intelligence officer who was also a Christian missionary in China during World War II. At the end of the war, the American officer, John Birch, had been captured and executed by communist Chinese forces. (Government records disputed Welchs account of Birchs death, which prompted Welch to claim pro-communist elements in the U.S. government had suppressed the facts.) Welch considered Birch to be the first casualty of Americas struggle against worldwide communism. By using Birchs name as a rallying cry, Welch sought to make resistance to communist infiltration the central mission of his organization. Public Perception The new organization found a receptive audience among politically conservative Americans who were opposed to changes taking place in America. The John Birch Society was fixated on a perceived communist menace, but it broadened that to include generally liberal ideas going back to the New Deal of the 1930s. In opposition to the landmark Brown vs. Board of Education ruling, Welch and his followers opposed the desegregation of schools. Members of the John Birch Society, often at local school boards, declared that integrated schools were part of the communist plot to weaken America. Wherever John Birch Society chapters appearedÃ there seemed to be controversy. Members accused local officials of being communist dupes or outright communists. By early 1961 news articles about the group were becoming common, and church groups, labor unions, and prominent politicians, began denouncing the organization as dangerous and anti-American. At various times Welch and his followers attacked Eleanor Roosevelt and former presidents Truman and Eisenhower. As part of its agenda against integration and liberal ideas in general, the group promoted the idea of impeaching, Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The groups billboards proclaiming Impeach Earl Warren appeared beside American highways. In early 1961 an American general, Edwin Walker, was accused of distributing John Birch Society literature to soldiers stationed in Europe. President John F. Kennedy was asked about the Walker situation during a press conference on April 21, 1961. Kennedy at first avoided mentioning the John Birch Society directly, but a reporter pressed him on it. Kennedy gave an answer:. Well, I dont think that their judgments are based on accurate information of the kinds of challenges that we face. I think we face an extremely serious and intensified struggle with the Communists. But I am not sure that the John Birch Society is wrestling with the real problems which are created by the Communist advance around the world. After citingÃ a number of points of conflicts with communist nations and guerrillas around the globe, Kennedy concluded: And I would hope all those who are concerned about the advance of communism would face that problem and not concern themselves with the loyalty of President Eisenhower, President Truman, or Mrs [Franklin D.] Roosevelt or myself or someone else. The following day, the New York Times published an editorial denouncing the John Birch Society as a addition to the lunatic fringe of American life. The editorial contained scathing remarks:Ã Lost in a world of fantasy, the John Birchers are busily looking for Communists in the White House, the Supreme Court, the classrooms, and presumably under the bed. Skepticism of the organization wasnt restricted to the nations elite press. A dispute over the group even became part of pop music history. Bob Dylan wrote a song, Talkin John Birch Paranoid Blues, which poked fun at the group. Invited to perform on the Ed Sullivan Show in May 1963, the 21-year-old Dylan intended to sing that particular song. CBS Television executives, apparently fearful of offending pro-Birch viewers, wouldnt let him. Dylan refused to sing another song, and during the programs dress rehearsal he walked out of the studio. He never did appear on the Ed Sullivan Show. Impact On the Mainstream Much of America might have scoffed at the John Birch Society, but within the Republican Party the group was exerting pressure.Ã The presidential campaign of Republican nominee and stalwart conservative Barry Goldwater was influenced by the John Birch Society. Goldwater himself never explicitly aligned himself with the group, but in his famous line at the 1964 Republican National Convention, Extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice, many heard echoes of the John Birch Society. As American society changed in the 1960s, the John Birch Society continued to rail against the Civil Rights Movement. Yet Robert Welch refused to support Americas involvement in Vietnam, as he contended it was being sabotaged by communists within the United States government. Familiar themes of the John Birch Society became part of the campaign of independent presidential candidate George Wallace in 1968. Following the 1960s, the organization seemed to fade into irrelevance. Mainstream conservatives such as William F. Buckley had denounced its extreme views, and as the conservative movement transformed itself leading up to theÃ 1980 election of Ronald Reagan, it kept a distance from Robert Welch and his followers. Welch died in 1985. He had retired from the organization he founded after suffering a stroke in 1983. Legacy of the John Birch Society To many Americans, the John Birch Society was a peculiar relic from the 1960s which had faded away. But the organization still exists, and it can be argued that some of its extremist rhetoric, which drew jeers decades ago, has seeped into the mainstream of the conservative movement. Accusations about government conspiracies which are regularly touted in venues such as Fox News or conservative talk radio do seem similar to conspiracy theories that once circulated in books and pamphlets published by the John Birch Society. The most prominent proponent of conspiracy theories today, Alex Jones, on whose program Donald Trump appeared as a presidential candidate, routinelyÃ echoes longstanding John Birch Society assertions. In the summer of 2017 Politico published an article about John Birch Society chapters in Texas. According to the report, the groups members had been successful in getting the Texas legislature to introduce bills aimed at such things as restricting suspected United Nations activities in Texas and curtailing the rumored spread of Sharia Law in America. The article contended that the John Birch Society was alive and well, and the group was gaining new members.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Ohio Senate Race 2012 Sherrod Brown vs. Josh Mandel - Case Study Example The key issue that the candidates are asking voters to consider is the recently passed health care law, popularly known as Ã¢â¬Å"Obamacare.Ã¢â¬ On one hand, Brown, just as a majority of Democrats, likes the law and supported its passage. On the other hand, Mandel wants this law repealed (Torry, Ã¢â¬Å"HealthcareÃ¢â¬ ). Indeed, the healthcare issue has been divisive not only amongst Ohioans, but also across the entire nation. This issue is important because Ohioans will identify the candidate who will support their preferred choice for healthcare. The two candidates are asking voters to consider the issue of abortion, which is another issue that draws emotions in the American society with people being either pro-choice or against abortion. This issue is crucial, especially amongst women voters, since they need to make a decision regarding the candidate who will support their needs. In addition, the recent global financial crisis is another issue that the candidates are asking vo ters to consider. In line with this, voters will want to know the candidate who will bring measures that reduced the States federal debt while improving the economy of the state (Torry, Ã¢â¬Å"Federal DebtÃ¢â¬ ). On one hand, Brown portrays himself as a defender of the middle class andÃ a supporter of the rights of women. ... Conversely, Mandel projects BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s pro-choice image as views of an extremist (Sewell). Through campaign ads, debates, and public rallies, the candidates are able to get their messages out to the voters. In fact, the Ohio Senate race is the most expensive race this election year (Davidson). Hence, various people and groups have spent money on ads in this campaign since the stakes are high. The candidates have tried hard to avoid any gaffes and controversies that might cost them the race due to the thin margin in the opinion polls. However, MandelÃ¢â¬â¢s gaffe of calling Mourdock a Ã¢â¬Å"gentlemanÃ¢â¬ and his remarks about abortion a Ã¢â¬Å"class actÃ¢â¬ might influence the voting patterns amongst women (Sewell). Nonetheless, Mandel indicated that he did not agree with MourdockÃ¢â¬â¢s statement and the media failed to highlight this issue. The mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s coverage of the race is faultless. In this case, the local media and the national media have been instrumental in highlighting the issues that these two candidates propose to the voters. In addition, the analysis and the reporting have been fair since each candidate appears to have equal airplay by the media covering the race. BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s message to the voters regards the improvement of the StateÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, and he provides specifics on the issue of taxes. On the other hand, JoshÃ¢â¬â¢s main message to the voters on tax opposes BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s message on tax extensions. However, the two candidates do not provide the specifics that lay a plan on reducing the deficit that the State is currently facing (Torry, Ã¢â¬Å"Federal DebtÃ¢â¬ ). Thus, the mediaÃ areÃ not distorting the messages from these two candidates as the two candidates failed to provide a clear approach of dealing with the
Friday, November 1, 2019
H5N1 Avian virus - Essay Example Moreover, this virus also has the ability to undergo antigenic drifts and antigenic shifts. The emergence of new strains of Avian influenza virus is of major public health concern because of the impending threat of a pandemic that it poses. Currently, the virus does not possess the ability of being transmitted amongst humans and it has been postulated that one this quality is acquired it would lead to potentially devastating consequences in the form of a pandemic. Till date, no vaccine for the prevention of H5N1 infection amongst humans exists. Moreover, the treatment options for infection are also limited viz. oseltamivir and zanamivir. Therefore, further research needs to be undertaken in order to develop new vaccines against these organisms and better medications to combat the infection if once contracted. Moreover, vigilant surveillance of outbreaks and epidemics of bird flu is also imperative. Avian Influenza or Bird Flu, as it commonly referred to, is an infection which is caused by the H5N1 virus. The natural hosts of this virus are wild birds, in particular water fowls, who carry these viruses in their intestines while themselves remaining asymptomatic (Auewaraku 404). The transmission of this virus to domesticated birds such as ducks, chickens and turkeys, can lead to outbreaks and epidemics of infection amongst these birds, causing a large number of them to be killed (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Recently, H5N1 virus is not only leading to an increasing number of epizootics, but has also been implicated in several epidemics in humans. The mode of transmission of this virus has been described as being feco-oral amongst birds, whereas humans contract the disease via contact with airborne particles from infected poultry or while contact with the poultry or their fecal matter e.g. during food preparation (Fleming 1066). The first human infection with H5N1 was