Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Marketing 100 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Marketing 100 - Essay Example The Organic care products are consumable products and majority of its products are for young customers. The main differentiation of Organic Care products is its contents which distinguishes it from other products. Organic Care is a hair care product of ‘Natures Organics’. Organic Care is made from natural elements, instead of commonly used synthetic ingredients. This product helps to cleanse the hair and provide much nourishment. General perspective says that other shampoo brands contain chemicals which can damage the hair of the user. But Organic Care from Natures Organics provides best alternatives to chemical based shampoos. The regular chemical based shampoo is harm for hair and can cause damage to the shine. Organic Care provides good substitutes for other chemical shampoo. Organic Care provides wide range of products which provide customer the freedom to choose. The herbs and natural hair oil in organic products made them special and it can lock the soft smell and shine. Moreover, to provide more efficient customer service, the organisation uses the formula titled ‘natural miracle’ which balances the moisturizer and nourishes the health of the users’ hairs. The consumer can feel their hair soft and manageable, by using these products everyday (Buzzle 2011). 1.2 Current Pricing Price is a vital issue in marketing. The pricing of product affects the product sales and distribution. Many factors have to be considered before deciding the pricing strategy of products. At first the cost of making the product is to be identified. The price must be set in a way that it covers the cost of production and the service cost. The cost of operating the business such as variable cost also needs to be considered for example the salaries of employees, financing cost, inventory cost and others. The market research must be conducted before setting the price of product. The price of the competitors must be observed and then the optimum price ha s to be decided. The cost of Organic Care Normal Balance Conditioner 400 ml pack is 3.45 Dollar in Australia. The other hair care products of Organic Care are Normal Conditioner, Nourish Shampoo, Nourish Conditioner, Heat Protect Conditioner, Colour Shampoo, and Colour Conditioner which costs 3.45 AUD on an average (Natures Organics n.d.). Compared to other similar products, Organic Care is much cheaper. For example, the cost of Nature’s Gate Organics Shampoo is 4.8 AUD for 12 fl oz (340 ml) bottles (Organic Shampoo and Conditioner 2011); Chamomile Lemon Shampoo costs 8.07 AUD for 12 Ounce (355 ml) bottles (Vegan Essentials n.d). Avalon Organics Refreshing Shampoo costs 9.59 AUD for 11 Ounce bottles (325 ml) (Avalon Organics 2011). Desert Essence Organics Thickening Shampoo costs 9.12 AUD of 8 fl oz (237 ml). So it can be seen that Organic Care products are very cheap

Monday, October 28, 2019

Coca-Cola Versus Pepsi-Cola Essay Example for Free

Coca-Cola Versus Pepsi-Cola Essay Summary In the late 1800s, American pharmacists started mixing fruit syrups and carbonated soda water, causing a new kind of beverages known as soda drinks. The most famous brands that started in the business are Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, and Dr. Pepper; but the big long-lasting rivalry is until today between Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola. In 1886, a pharmacist named Dr. John Pemberton made the formula of Coca-Cola and the drink was sold in at the counter of Jacob’s Pharmacy as a refreshing drink. Pemberton was a part owner of the pharmacy after he left, eventually, Asa Candler became the sole owner and had the rights to the drink. Candler sold the Coca-Cola syrup to pharmacies and started a big advertising campaign which gave Candler a strong sales force. In 1899 Candler granted the first bottling franchise, which eventually grew rapidly. Ernest Woodruff bought Coca-Cola in 1919 for 25$ million, Woodruff and his son worked on making Coke a convenient product that’s available everywhere. Woodruff made a great decision at the time of the beginning of World War II; he stated that every man wearing a uniform should get a Coca-Cola bottle for only 5 cents whatever it costs. This decision made Coke have a strong market-share in Asian and European countries; in the late 1950’s, Coca-Cola advertised as â€Å"Americans Preferred Taste†. Woodruff was influential in Coke’s strategic decisions until 1982. A pharmacist named Caleb Bradham invented the formula of Pepsi-Cola in 1893 in New Bern, South Carolina in 1893. Pepsi followed a similar path as Coke in the expansion, using franchisers to spread their beverage. The company faced bankruptcy many times due to the strong advantage that Coke had over Pepsi-Cola and the weak competition between the two companies at that time. In the period following WWII, Coke outsold Pepsi by a 10 to 1 ratio per unit; in that period many soft-drink producers started entering the market with a big variety of flavors other than cola flavor. Alfred Steele became Pepsi’s CEO in 1950, he believed that his company will take over Coke one day, Steele was a former Coca-Cola marketing executive, and he helped Pepsi a lot due to his wide knowledge about the rival which is Coca-Cola. In an effort to raise the company’s sales, Pepsi introduced new bottle sizes such as the 24-oz family bottle. 1955 Steele married an actress named Joan Crawford and sta rted a big advertising campaign; Alfred Steel’s motto was â€Å"beat coke† which led to increasing Pepsi revenues to over 300% between years 1950 and 1959. Through the years many soft drink companies joined the industry, but the difference is that these companies focused on tastes other than colas, such as 7UP which is a mix of citric flavors and soda, 7UP was first introduced in 1929; the introduction of 7UP led to an increase in the national market share. Coca-Cola continued to expand in the 1960s making Coke available internationally and in the United States. Coca-Cola started diversifying when it bought Minute Maid Juice Company; Cola-Cola also produced new products such as Sprite. Coca-Cola offered its soft drinks either in cans or glass bottles in 1961. Throughout the years in the 1960s and 1970s, Coca-Cola introduced different new products such as Sprite, Tab, Mr.Pibb, Fresca, and Mellow Yellow. Coca-Cola concentrated on international markets to spread the drinks, this strategy of spreading Coca-Cola internationally had matured the company and made the brand image much stronger than Pepsi. Donald Kendall, a former sales manager became Pepsi CEO in 1963, under Kendall Pepsi was renamed PepsiCo and started an unrelated diversification by opening restaurants such as Pizza Hut and producing snacks. Pepsi extended its line of products in 1964 by introducing Diet Pepsi and Mountain Dew; Mountain Dew has a similar taste to Sprite with was introduced by Coca-Cola. Pepsi tried to keep track with Coke in order to keep the competition even though Coca-Cola was more powerful than PepsiCo at that time. Pepsi became more aggressive and competition hungry in 1970 and 1971 when they employed experienced marketing executives. In the 1950s and 1960s the price of Pepsi was 20% less than the price of Coke, but still wasn’t able to reach Coke’s strength; with the strong advertising campaigns thanks to the experienced executives that Pepsi recruited, Pepsi was able to gain a stronger market-share for the first time in 1975. In 1974, Pepsi was the third largest-selling soft drink after Coke and Dr. Pepper. Researchers from Pepsi have shown that in a blind test the majority of consumers preferred Pepsi over Coke. This successful experiment which was called â€Å"The Pepsi Challenge† increased Pepsi’s market share and made it the number-two brand. After the great success that this challenge brought to Pepsi, Victor Bonomo, president of Pepsi USA in 1974, decided that the Pepsi challenge should be deployed I all market where Pepsi is weak. The spread of the Pepsi challenge led to an increase in Pepsi sales by 20% in the biggest cities of America. Pepsi launched the Challenge all over the nation in 1977, and after 3 years Pepsi brand was widely recognized in the U.S. and gave Pepsi an additional 1.3% market share lead over the rival Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola responded to the challenge by giving big discounts in certain markets where Coke has a competitive advantage over Pepsi and by stating that Coke’s bottlers are owned by Coca-Cola, but Pepsi bottlers are franchisees. Knowing that Coke and Pepsi is a standardized product, Coca-Cola used price as a market weapon to target Pepsi consumers. Coke tried to regain money lost that was a result of the huge discounts that the company kept on introducing, by selling franchisees the concentrate rather than the syrup they use in manufacturing the drinks. Roberto Goizueta became CEO of Coca-Cola in 1980, he introduced a 1200-word strategy statement, and the main aim of this statement is price discounting in order to regain Coke’s position in the market. Coca-Cola began to influence the ownership and management of the of their franchised bottlers, despite being committed to independent bottlers, they replaced bottlers in key markets that were not deemed sufficiently aggressive in selling their product. The CEO of Coca-Cola USA stated that the company had some role to play in the reasons the buyers purchase the product by offering in several instances to increase the numbers of their investments with the potential buyers. 2) Contribution The â€Å"Coca-Cola Versus Pepsi-Cola† case study was written to give the maximum amount of information to business-oriented individuals, it gave so much information about two of the most competitive companies throughout history; the paper illustrated the history of the two main soft drink companies and also talked about other companies that entered the industry. The irony is Pepsi and Coca-Cola were invented by pharmacists who are supposed to prescribe drugs to people and not give them beverages with high amounts of sugar and artificial tastes, the case explained how Pepsi and Coke changed people’s views of a beverage when the companies invented carbonated soda beverages. The paper explained in details the huge cola advertising war that started in the 1980s between the rival Coca-Cola and PepsiCo that caused a big revolution in the beverage industry and incentivized new companies to enter the industry and produce beverages with different flavors. The case explained the positioning of the two companies and showed the difference in the brand value of the companies. The case was great also in giving the comparative analysis between the two companies, giving the different products other than the main product that was first manufactured by the companies. The case also showed us how the companies implemented different strategies to increase revenues and to increase market share and gain the most competitive advantage. Pepsi vs. Coca-Cola SWOT analysis Strength: *Pepsi: Very Innovative, the broad portfolio of products, more flexible franchise network, aggressive marketing strategy. *Coca-Cola: One of the most valuable brands in the world, largest market share in the soft drink industry, and great customer loyalty Weakness: *Pepsi: Competition with Coke, higher prices than Coke, and lower net profit margin than Coca-Cola *Coca-Cola: Competition with Pepsi, relies on soft drinks, and lacks diversification Opportunities: *Pepsi: International expansion and growth in the bottled water industry *Coca-Cola: Reduce costs and increased demand for bottled water Threats: *Pepsi: Increased marketing campaigns by Coke and restrictions to sell in certain countries because Coke has control on them *Coca-Cola: Strong local brands in some countries and negative publicity Michael Porters 5 Forces on Pepsi and Coca-Cola Knowing that Pepsi and Coca-Cola have standardized products, I won’t need to talk about every company alone. The intensity of Rivalry between Competitors: Pepsi and Coke are historical competitors, in the 1980s; the rivalry between them was very ferocious, and the cola war occurred at that period of time to show which companies’ products taste better. Bargaining Power of Suppliers: Suppliers have no power over Pepsi or Coca-Cola, it is very easy and cheap to buy all the ingredients to manufacture soft drinks, in fact, the competition between Pepsi and Coca-Cola’s suppliers is really strong because of the great and presence of all the material. In my opinion, Pepsi and Coca-Cola have power over their suppliers; this helps them in decreasing their costs a lot. Bargaining Power of Buyers: The power of buyers in the case of Coca-Cola and Pepsi is high, because the switching cost is low or even the same depending on the geographical segment; both companies try their best to gain customer loyalty, but Coke does it better by playing on its customers’ emotions in its advertisements. The threat of New Entrants: This force is low, the soft drink industry is very competitive if a possible new product enters the market, and it would be really expensive and hard to position in the very strong industry. Threat of Substitutes: This force is high, especially because of health trends that hit the community from time to time, bottled water and juice companies are working hard in order to gain a competitive advantage over Pepsi and Coke by showing consumers the bad effects and obesity that this soda beverage can cause to our health, this is causing a change Pepsi and Coca-Cola’s strategies and making them introduce diet beverages as mentioned in the case, or even causing the Pepsi and Coca-Cola to buy big companies that produce healthy beverages; as an example, Pepsi bought Aquafina in order to have an advantage over the competitor.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Group Dynamics in 12 Angry Men Essay -- Movie, Film, Twelve Angry Men

In the 1957 classic 12 Angry Men, group dynamics are portrayed through a jury deliberation. Group dynamics is concerned with the structure and functioning of groups as well as the different types of roles each character plays. In the film, twelve men are brought together in a room to decide whether a boy is guilty of killing his father. The personality conflicts, the joint effort and the functioning of several minds together to search for the truth are just a few characteristics of group dynamics at work. The whole spectrum of humanity is represented in this movie, from the bigotry of Juror No.10 to the coldly analytical No.4. Whether they brought good or bad qualities to the jury room, they all affected the outcome. At the outset, eleven jurors vote in favor of convicting the accused without even discussing a single shred of the evidence presented at the trial. When a group becomes too confident and fails to think realistically about its task, groupthink can occur. Since it takes a longer time to communicate and reach a consensus in a group, decision making in a group is time-consuming. Therefore, when groups want to achieve a quick decision, as several jurors were eager to do, they make riskier decisions than individuals. Since not any individual is completely accountable for the decision, members will have a tendency to accept more extreme solutions. Only one brave juror refused to vote guilty. Juror #8 refused to fall into the groupthink trap and ultimately saved an innocent man's life. He openly admits that he does not know whether the accused is guilty or innocent and that he finds it necessary to simply talk about the case. What follows is not only a discussion of the particular facts of t he case, but also an intense ex... ...quires looking at matters objectively, analyzing the evidence, and coming to a fair conclusion. And even if the juror's personal baggage was not checked at the door, the shift into positive group dynamics allowed the jury members to overcome interpersonal conflicts and prejudices to reach consensus on the innocence of an alleged murderer. Bibliography 1. Kolb, David A., and Joyce S. Osland and Irwin Mr. Rubin. Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach. 6th edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1995 Pages 98-100 2. Sarah Trenholm. Thinking Through Communication: An Introduction To The Study Of Human Communication. 2nd edition. Allyn and Bacon: A Viacom Company, 1995 Pages 196 - 205 3. Damian Cannon, a review by. '12 Angry Men (1957)' Copyright Movie Reviews UK 1997 4. Steve Rhodes, a review by. '12 Angry Men (1957)' Copyright 1997 Steve Rhodes

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Psychosocial Effects Of Aging Health And Social Care Essay

Geriatricss is a subdivision of medical specialty covering with the aged and the jobs of the ripening. The field geriatrics includes of unwellness bar and direction, wellness care, and publicities of quality of life for the aged. Research on a broad assortment subject ramping from household facets of aging economic resources, and the bringing of long-run attention provinces that gender, race, ethnicity, and societal category systematically influenced the quality of the experience of aging. The experience of aging consequences from interaction of physical, mental, societal and cultural factors. Aging varies across civilizations. Culturally, aging every bit good as the intervention of the aged, is frequently determined by the values of an cultural group. Culture besides may find the manner the older individual views the procedure of aging every bit good as the mode in a more heterogenous aged population than any coevals that proceed it can be expected. Health attention professionals wi ll necessitate to cognize non merely diseases and upsets common to a specific age group but those common to a peculiar cultural group every bit good. An grasps of backgrounds can assist the wellness attention professional provide a personal attack when covering with and run intoing the demands of aged patients. Aging is a board construct that includes physical alterations in people ‘s organic structures over big life, psychological alterations in their heads and mental capacities, societal psychological alterations in what they think and believe, and societal alterations in how they are viewed, what they expected of them. Aging is invariably germinating construct. Impressions are a biologic age is more critical than chronologic age when finding wellness position of the aged is valid. Aging is an single and highly variable procedure. The functional capacity of major organic structure organs varies with progressing age. As one grows older, environmental and lifestyle factors aff ect the age-related functional alterations in the organic structure organ. The bulk of the aged seen in the wellness attention puting have been diagnosed with at least one chronic status. Persons who in the seventiess would non be able to last a debilitating unwellness, such as malignant neoplastic disease or a ruinous wellness events like a bosom onslaught, can now populate for more drawn-out periods of clip, sometimes with a assortment of coincident enfeebling conditions. Although age is the most consistent and strongest forecaster of hazard for malignant neoplastic disease and for decease from malignant neoplastic disease, Management of the aged malignant neoplastic disease patient becomes complex because other chronic conditions, such as degenerative arthritis, diabetes, chronic clogging pneumonic disease ( COPD ) , and bosom disease, must besides be considered in their attention. The attitude of wellness attention suppliers towards older grownups affect their wellness attention. Unfortunately, research indicates that wellness attention professionals are significantly more negative in their attitudes towards older patients than younger 1s. This attitude must alter if the wellness attention supplier is to hold a positive interaction with the aged patient. These attitude appear to be related to the permeant stereotyping of the aged, which serves to warrant avoiding attention and contact with them, every bit good as being reminders of our ain mortality. Ageism is a term used to depict the stereotyping of and favoritism against aged individuals and is conside red to be similar to that of the racism and sexism. It emphasized that often the aged are perceived to be abhorrent and that a antipathy for the aging procedure itself exists. Ageism suggests that he bulk of aged are doddering, suffering most of the clip, and dependant instead than independent persons. The media have besides influenced on traveling stereotyped impressions about the aged. Health attention suppliers must larn to appreciate the positive facets of aging so that they can help the aged in holding a positive experience with their imaging process.PHYSICAL, COGNITIVE, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF AGINGThe human organic structure undergoes a multiplicity of physiologic alteration 2nd by 2nd. Small considerations is given sing these alterations unless they are brought on by sudden physical, psychological, or cognitive events. Radiographers must retrieve that each aged individual they encounter is a alone person with distinguishable features. These persons have experienced a life filled with memories and achievement. Young or old, the definition of quality of life is an person and personal 1. Research has shown that wellness position is an first-class forecaster of felicity. Greater societal contact, wellness satisfaction, low vulnerable personality traits, fewer nerve-racking life events have been linked to successful aging. Self-efficacy can be defined as the degree of control one has over one ‘s hereafter. Many aged people feel they have no control over medical exigencies and fixed incomes. Many have fewer picks about their personal life agreements. These environmental factors can take to depression and decreased self-efficacy. An addition in unwellness will normally parallel a lessening in self-efficacy. The aged may see altering functions from life of independency. The household function of an grownup lovingness for kids and grandchildren may germinate into the kids caring for their lovingness aging parents. It is besides a clip of loss. Losses may include the decease of a partner and friends, every bit good as loss of income due to retirement. The loss of wellness may be the ground for the wellness attention visit. The overall loss control may take to isolation and depression in the aged. Death and death is besides an at hand fact of life. The aging procedure entirely does non likely alter the indispensable nucleus of human being. Physical unwellness is non aging, and age-related alterations in the organic structure are frequently modest in magnitude. As one ages, the inclinations to prefer slower-paced activities, take longer to larn new undertakings, go more unretentive, and lose parts of centripetal processing accomplishments increase easy but noticeably. Health attention professionals need to be reminded that aging and disease are non synonymous. The more closely a map is tied to physical capablenesss, the more likely it is to worsen with age, whereas the closer a map depends on experience, the more likely it will increase with age. Joint stiffness, weight addition, weariness and loss of bone mass can be slowed through proper nutritionary intercessions and low-impact exercising. The importance of exercising can non be overstated. Exercise has been shown addition aerophilic capacity and mental velocity. Exercise plans designed for the aged should stress increased strength, flexibleness, and endurance. One of the best forecasters of good wellness in ulterior old ages is the figure and extent of healthy life styles that were established in earlier life. The aged individual may shown lessenings in attending accomplishments during complex undertakings. Balance, coordination, strength and reaction clip all lessening with age. Falls associated with balance jobs are common in the aged population, ensuing in a demand to concentrate on walking. Not overpowering them with instructions is helpful. Their vacillation to follow instructions may be fear instilled from a old autumn. Sight, hearing, gustatory sensation and odor are all centripetal modes that decline with age. Older people have more trouble with bright visible radiations and tuning out background noise. Many aged people become expert at lip reading to counterbalance for loss of hearing. For radiographers to presume that all aged patients are difficult of hearing is non usual ; they are non speaking in a normal tone, while doing volume accommodations merely if necessary, is a good regulation of pollex. Talking easy, straight, and clearly when giving instructions allows older grownup s an chance to screen through waies and improves their ability to follow them with better truth. Cognitive damage in the aged can be caused by disease, aging, and neglect. Dementia is defined as progressive cognitive damage that finally interferes with day-to-day working. It includes cognitive, psychologic, and functional shortages including memory damage. With normal aging comes a decelerating down and a gradual have oning out of bodily systems bit it does non include dementedness. Yet the prevalence of dementedness additions with age. Persistent perturbations in cognitive operation, including memory and rational ability, accompany dementedness. Fears of cognitive loss, particularly Alzheimer ‘s disease, are widespread among older people. Alzheimer ‘s disease is the most common signifier of dementedness. Therefore wellness attention professionals are more likely to meet people with this type. The bulk of aged people work at keeping and maintaining their mental maps by remaining active through mental games and exercisings and maintaining engaged in regular conversati on. When caring for patients with any grade of dementedness, verbal conversation should be inclusive and respectful. One should ne'er discourse the patients as through they are non in the room or are non active participants in the process. One of the first inquiries asked of any patient come ining a wellness attention installations for exigency service â€Å" Do you cognize where you are and what twenty-four hours it is? † The wellness attention suppliers need to cognize merely how watchful the patient is. Although memory does worsen with age, this is experienced largely with short-run memory undertakings. Long-run memory or subconscious memory undertakings show small alteration over clip and with increasing age. There can be a assortment of grounds for confusion or freak out. Medication, psychiatric perturbation, or retirement can confound the patient. For some older people, retirement agencies making a new set modus operandis and seting to them. The bulk of seniors like construction in their lives and have familiar modus operandis for nearing each twenty-four hours.PHYSIOLOGY OF AGINGHealth and well- being depend mostly on the grade to which organ systems can successfully work together to keep internal stablen ess, With age, there is seemingly a gradual damage of these homeostatic mechanisms. Aged people experience nonuniform, gradual, on-going organ map failure in all systems. Many of the organic structure organs bit by bit lose strength with forward age. These alterations place the aged at hazard for disease or disfunction, particularly in the presence of emphasis. At some point the likeliness of unwellness, disease and decease additions. Assorted physical diseases and upset affect both mental and physical wellness of people of all ages. They are more profound among aged people because diseases and upsets among older people are more likely to be chronic in nature. Although aging is inevitable, the aging experience is extremely single and is affected by heredity, lifestyle picks physical wellness, and attitude. A great part of usual aging hazards can be modified with positive displacements in life manner. In aged, the ripening of the variety meats systems is one of the procedure where th ey need to understands and there are as list below: Integumentary systems upsets Nervous systems upsets Centripetal systems upsets Musculoskeletal systems upsets Cardiovascular systems upsets Gastrointestinal system upset Immune system diminution Respiratory system upset Hematologic system upsets Genitourinary systems upsets Endocrine systems upsets.THE RADIOGRAPHER ‘S ROLEThe function of the radiographer is no different than that of all other wellness professionals. The whole individual must be treated, non merely the manifested symptoms of an unwellness or hurt. Medical imagination and curative processs reflect the impact of ongoing systemic ripening in documentable and ocular signifiers. Adapting processs to suit disablements and disease of geriatric patients is a critical duty and a challenge based about entirely on the radiographer ‘s cognition, abilities, and accomplishment. An apprehension of the physiology and pathology of aging, in add-on to an consciousness of the economic the societal, psychologic, cognitive, and economic facets of ripening, are required to run into the demands of the aged population. Conditions typically associated with aged patient constantly require versions or alterations of everyday imagination processs. The radiographer must be able to distinguish between age related alterations and disease procedures. Production of diagnostic images necessitating professional determination doing to counterbalance for physiologic alterations, while keeping the conformity, safety, and comfort of the patient, is foundation of the contract between the aged patient and the radiographer.RADIOGRAPHIC POSITIONING FOR GERIATRIC PATIENTSThe preceding treatments and apprehension of the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial effects of aging can assist radiographers accommodate to the placement challenges of the geriatric patient. In come instances everyday scrutinies need to be modified to suit the restriction, safety, and comfort of the patient. Communicating clear instructions with the patient is of import. The undermentioned treatment references positioning suggestion for assorted constructions. The common skiagraphy scrutinies for gerontologies are: Chest Spinal column Pelvis/hip Upper appendage Lower appendage Thorax The place of pick for the chest radiogram is the unsloped place ; nevertheless, the aged patient may non be able to stand without aid for this scrutiny. The traditional posteroanterior ( PA ) place is to hold the â€Å" dorsums of custodies on hips. † This may be hard for person with impaired balance and flexibleness. The radiographer can let the patient to falsify his or her weaponries around the chest bases as a agency of support and security. The patient may non be able to keep his or her weaponries over the caput for sidelong projection of the thorax. Supply excess security and stableness while traveling the weaponries up and forwards. When the patient can non stands, The scrutiny may be done seated in a wheelchair, but some issues will impact the radiographic quality. First, the radiotherapist demand to be cognizant that the radiogram is an anteroposterior ( AP ) alternatively of a PA projection, which may do comparing hard. Hyperkyphosis can ensue in the lung vertexs being obscured, and the venters may befog the lung bases. In sitting place, respiration may be compromised, and the patient should be instructed on the importance of a deep inspiration. Positioning of the image receptor for crookback patient should be higher than normal because the shoulder and vertexs are in a higher place. Radiographic landmarks may alter with age, and the focus may necessitate to be lower, if the patient is highly crookback. When positioning the patient for the sitting sidelong chest projection, the radiographer should put a big sponge behind the patient to tilt him or her forward. Siting Chest PA Chest Standing Spinal column Radiographic spinal column scrutinies may be painful for the patient enduring from osteoporosis who is lying on the x-ray tabular array. Positioning AIDSs such as radiolucent sponge, sandbags, and a mattress may be used every bit long as the quality, of the image is non compromised. Performing unsloped radiographic scrutiny may be besides appropriate if a patient can safely digest this place. The combination of cervical hollow-back and pectoral humpback can do placement and visual image of the cervical and pectoral spinal column hard. Lateral cervical projections can be done with the patient standings, sitting, or lying supine. The AP projection in the sitting place may non visualise the upper cervical vertebrae because the mentum may befog this anatomy. In the supine place the caput may non make the tabular array and consequence in magnification. The AP and open-mouth projection are hard to make in wheelchair. The thoracic and lumbar spinal columns are sites for compaction breaks. The usage of positioning blocks may be necessary to assist the patient remain in place. For the sidelong projection, a lead blocker or shield behind the spinal column should be used to absorb every bit much spread radiation as possible. Lateral Spine PELVIS/HIP Osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and hurts as the consequence of falls contribute to hip pathologies. A common break in the aged is the femoral cervix. An AP projection of the pelvic girdle should be done to analyze the hip. If indicant is trauma, the radiographer should non try to revolve the limbs. The 2nd position taken should be a cross-table lateral of the affected hip. If hip hurting is the indicant, help the patient to internal rotary motion of the legs with the usage of sandbags if necessary. Immobilization device are topographic point to the patient pes. UPPER EXTREMITY Positioning the geriatric patient for projections of the upper appendages can show its ain challenges. Often the upper appendages have limited flexibleness and mobility. A cerebrovascular accident or shot may do contractures of the affected limb. Contracted limbs can non be forced into place, and cross-table positions may necessitate to be done. The inability of the patient to travel his or her limb should non be interpreted as a deficiency of cooperation. Supination is frequently a job in patients with contractures, breaks, and palsy. The everyday AP and sidelong projections can be supported with the usage of sponges, sandbags, and blocks to raise and back up the appendage being imaged. The shoulder is besides a site decreased mobility, disruption, and breaks. The healer should measure how much motion the patient can make before trying to travel the arm. The usage of finger sponges may besides assist with the contractures of the fingers. Hand Projection Lateral Wrist LOWER EXTREMITY The lower appendages may hold limited flexibleness and mobility. The ability to dorsiflex the mortise joint may be reduced as a consequence of neurologic upsets. Imaging on the x-ray tabular array may necessitate to be modified when a patient can non turn on his or her side. Flexure of the articulatio genus may be impaired and required a cross-table sidelong projection. If digressive projection of the kneecap, such as the Settegast method, is necessary and the patient can turn on his or her side, topographic point the image receptor superior to the articulatio genus and direct to cardinal beam perpendicular through the patellofemoral articulation. Projections of the pess and mortise joints may be obtained with the patient sitting in the wheelchair. The usage of positioning sponges and sandbags support and keep the place of the organic structure portion being imaged. AP Ankle Projection Lateral Ankle ProjectionPATIENT CAREPatient attention must be apply to geriatric patient because they all are all fragile where their bone can easy interrupt or they can be easy fainted during the scrutiny. For communications, take clip to educate the patient and his or her household, talk lower and closer, and handle the patient with self-respect and regard. Transportation and raising patient are besides be need because gerontologies patient is non stronger than normal individual. If possible, give the patient clip to rest between projection and processs. Avoid adhesive tape because aged tegument is thin and delicate. Supply warm covers in cold scrutiny suites, use table tablets and custodies tracks and ever entree the patient ‘s medical history before contrast media is administered. Take clip with the patient Immobilization DeviceDecisionThe imaging professional will go on to see a alteration in wellness attention bringing system with the dramatic displacement in the population of individuals older than age 65. This displacement in the general population is ensuing in an on-going addition in the figure of medical imagination processs preformed on aged patients. Demographic and societal effects aging find the manner in which the aged adapt to and see the procedure of aging. An person ‘s household size and perceptual experiences of aging, economic resources, gender, race, ethnicity, societal category, and the handiness and bringing of wellness attention will impact the quality of the aging experience. Biologic age will be much more critical than chronologic aging when finding the wellness position of the aged. Healthier life styles and promotion in medical intervention will make a coevals of successfully aging grownups, which in bend should diminish the nega tive stereotyping of the aged individual. Attitudes of all wellness attention professionals, whether positive or negative, will impact the attention provided to be turning aged population. Education about the mental and physiologic changes associated with aging, along with the cultural, economic and societal influences attach toing ripening, enables the radiographer to accommodate imagination and curative processs to the aged patient ‘s disablements ensuing from age-related alterations. The human organic structure undergoes a multiplicity of physiologic alterations and failure in all systems. The aging experience is affected by heredity, lifestyle picks, physical wellness, and attitude, doing it extremely individualized. No person ‘s aging procedure is predictable and is ne'er precisely the same as that of any other single. Radiologic engineers must utilize their cognition, abilities, and accomplishments to set imagination processs to suit for disablements and disease encountered with geriatric patients. Safety and comfort of the patient is indispensable in keeping conformity throughout imaging processs. Execution of accomplishments such as good communicating, listening, sensitiveness, and empathy, all lead to patient conformity. Knowledge of age-related alterations and disease procedure will heighten the radiographer ‘s ability to supply diagnostic information and intervention when supplying attention that meets the demands of the increasing aged patien t population.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Assess the usefulness of different sociological approaches to suicide

Durkheim wrote in the 1890s and was one of the first sociologists right at the forefront of establishing and defining sociology as a scientific discipline. Durkheim argued that it was not only possible to apply scientific principles to social phenomena but that it was essential to do so in order to produce useful sociology. His 1897 book suicide: a study in sociology uses his scientific methods to explore suicide. Durkheim chooses suicide deliberately, because as the most individual, private and psychologically driven act it was considered by most not to be a social phenomenon.If sociology could identify social factors and causes of suicide, this would demonstrate the power and impact of society on individual behaviour. So in Durkheim’s view he believes our behaviour is caused by social facts and they are said to be external from the individual, constrain individuals and be greater than the individuals. After Durkheim’s analysis of official statistics on suicide it reve aled some social groups are more likely to commit suicide than others. For Durkheim, the social patterns of suicide he discovered is not a random individual act but as stated by Luke’s social factors play a key role.Durkheim’s work showed a correlation between suicide and social facts like suicide rates were higher in predominantly protestant countries than in catholic ones, Jews were the religious group with the lowest suicide rate, married people were less likely to commit suicide and those with higher education had a higher suicide rate. Durkheim said different forms of suicide related to how much integration and regulation there was in society and this would provide us with a fourfold typology. The term social integration means socialisation into the norms, values and lifestyles of social groups and society.Regulation meaning the control that society and social groups has over an individual’s behaviour. With these two factors Durkheim brings upon egoistic su icide not enough integration. The individual isn’t successfully integrated into groups or society, anomic not enough regulation society has insufficient control over individuals, altruistic too much integration an over integrated individual sacrifices their life for the group and fatalistic too much regulation the individual is too highly controlled by society. Durkheim’s work can also be applied into type of society.As Durkheim states modern societies and traditional society differ from one and other in their levels of integration and regulation. Durkheim discovers that modern industrial societies have lower levels of integration due to lack of freedom this weakens bonds and give rise to egoistic suicide. Whilst, traditional pre-industrial societies have higher levels of integration as the group is more important than the individual and this gives rise to altruistic suicide. Durkheim has been criticised by other positivist sociologist.Halbwachs largely supported Durkh eim’s conclusion but pointed out that the impact of rural versus urban lifestyles on suicide rates hadn’t been considered. Also, Gibbs and Martin argued that Durkheim hadn’t used vigorous enough scientific methods even though he’d stressed how important they were. The key concepts of integration and regulation weren’t defined closely enough to be measured statistically. Gibbs and Martin query how anyone can know how anyone can know what â€Å"normal† levels of integration and regulation are.Interpretivist sociologists have devised alternative theories of suicide they say social reality is not a series of social facts for sociologists to discover, but a series of different meanings and interpretations that each person brings to and takes from each situation. Durkheim’s work is fatally flawed from this perspective because he relies on the unquestioning use of official statistics. According to interpretivists, statistics are not fact the y are a social construction based on the definition of the people who compile them.Douglas takes an Interactionist approach to suicide and he is interested in the meaning that suicide has for the deceased, and the way that coroners label death as suicides. He criticises Durkheim’s study of suicide on two main grounds. One of them being the use of suicide statistics because the decision to classify death as a suicide is taken by a coroner and this may produce bias in verdicts reached. So Douglas feels these are the patterns Durkheim found and that well integrated have friends and relatives who may deny death and this explains their low level of suicide.So Durkheim indicates that suicide verdicts and statistics are based on interactions and negotiations between those involved like friends, doctors and police as they may affect death being labelled as a suicide, rather than it actually being one. That’s why people feel integration plays no dividends. Douglas second point criticises Durkheim for ignoring the meanings of the act for those who kill themselves and for assuming that suicide has a fixed or constant meaning.Douglas backs this up as he notes the cultural differences by Japanese samurai warrior who kill themselves because they have been dishonoured by western society. Douglas also states that we need to categorise suicides according to their social meanings because the triggers and response to suicide are different in different cultures. These social meanings consist of transformation of the soul, transformation of the self, achieving sympathy and achieving revenge.Douglas can be criticised, as he is inconsistent, sometimes suggesting that official statistics are merely the product of coroner’s opinions. At other times, he claims we really can discover the cause of suicide-yet how can we, if we can never know whether a death was a suicide and all we have is coroners opinions? Douglas also produces a classification of suicide based on the supposed meanings for the actors. However, there is no reason to believe that sociologists are any better than coroners at interpreting dead person’s meanings.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Crossman Diaries case Essay Example

The Crossman Diaries case Essay Example The Crossman Diaries case Essay The Crossman Diaries case Essay The power of conventions to aid constitutional change may therefore be acknowledged from a political standpoint. The case of Attorney General v Jonathan Cape10 suggests that conventions wield little recognition from a legal perspective. In practice, the courts general attitude towards conventions does in fact reflect badly upon the legal power of conventions. The Crossman Diaries case provides a perfect illustration of the courts unwillingness to apply conventions. The case was regarding the publication of the diaries of Richard Crossman, a minister in the Labour governments from 1964 to 1970. The Attorney General sought to prevent publication on the grounds of a breach of convention. The convention relied upon was of collective ministerial responsibility, the preservation of cabinet secrecy. Lord Widgery CJ stated that a true convention is.. an obligation founded in conscience only11 and subsequently the Attorney General was unable to rely upon a conventional rule. This case is a demonstration of the courts lack of acceptance of conventions as a reason for case redress. Similarly, the case of Manuel v Attorney General12 illustrates the treatment of conventions as an entirely different species from law, which is a nice reflection of the argument of Sir Ivor Jennings that laws and conventions are in substance the same13 to be somewhat flawed. The issue arising from the case of Manuel v Attorney General involved the possible crystallisation of convention into law. It was suggested that the convention that the United Kingdom Parliament should not legislate for Canada except with its permission, might have evolved into a law through long term recognition. Slade LJ, who issued the Court of Appeal judgement, stated that the argument was quite unsustainable in the courts of this country14 and it was concluded that conventions do not possess the power to evolve from political practices to actual laws. However, occasionally the breach of a conventional rule can result in a change in law and I believe this demonstrates that conventions do exert a certain degree of power in legal fields as well as in areas of a purely political nature. The convention that the House of Lords should not obstruct the policy of an elected government when a majority in the House of Commons exists, was thought to have been breached in 1909, with a refusal from the House of Lords to accept budget proposals formulated by the Liberal government. The House of Lords was subsequently denied the power to prevent enactment of a measure accepted as a money bill15. Although it is rare for courts to apply conventions, they often use conventions as a tool for interpretation. In a privy council appeal case regarding the accession of Canada to independence, the convention of equity of status referred to in the preamble, was one of the main grounds for interpreting an otherwise ambiguous section of the Canadian constitution in such a way as to empower Federal Parliament to reject appeals to the privy council from all Canadian courts in civil cases16. Similarly when English courts have objected to review the grounds on which executive discretionary powers have been exercised, they have relied upon the convention that a minister is responsible to parliament for the exercise of power. Although it is not necessary for courts to enforce conventions, it is clear that these non-legal rules impose significant weight of obligation. Conventions play an important role in the operation of constitutions, yet there is still uncertainty surrounding their definition, implications, and scope. There is uncertainty with regard to their position in relation to laws and whether their obligatory nature makes them more than mere habits. The late Professor J D B Mitchell17 held that conventions were no less important than laws stating that: Many conventions are capable of being expressed with the precision of a rule of law, or of being incorporated into law. Precedent is as operative in the formulation of convention as it is in law. It cannot be said that a rule of law is necessarily more certain than a convention. Although this statement is not wholly acceptable, it illustrates the high regard in which conventions are held. The statement about precision must be questioned as only a small number of conventions exist whose precise formulation can be agreed. The issue relating to whether the importance of conventions equates to that of laws can be argued from both directions. In 1930s America the convention that a president should not stand for re-election more than once was considered more important than the law, as the law imposed no restriction. However, Franklin Roosevelt was elected for a third and fourth term which contradicts the argument that conventions are always of equal importance18. I would tend to refrain from drawing the conclusion that laws are always as important if not more important than laws as there is no sanction if a convention is broken and the convention that judges must abstain from party politics is more honoured in breach than in observance. However, what distinguishes these non-legal rules from mere habits is Diceys statement that if certain conventions are broken, legal problems would eventually arise19. The example he gives is that if parliament did not meet every year, legal requirements such as the authorisation of the budget would not be dealt with. The political and legal implications of conventions, as previously discussed, and their main purpose of adapting an otherwise archaic constitution to fit modern political values certainly distinguishes them from mere habits. A constitution without conventions would ultimately fail as they are sufficiently flexible to alter what cannot otherwise be altered; modified with changing social value, recast by those they control, expunged when they become inconvenient, and ignored when they become embarrassing. Ultimately they are a reactive tool whose scope and purpose cannot be attributed to mere habits.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Pit Bull

Pit Bull Pit Bulls Attack Nun I feel that not only the dogs were at fault but also the, police and the dog owner. First of all what kind of stupid animals would attack a nun, servent of god these animals will most likely be going to dog hell. I do not want to point a finger at the dogs as much as I do at the owner though. The owner must have trained the pit bulls to attack humans because no dogs attack humans without having been trained to do so. Also why were the dogs loose should they not have been in a kennel? The owner of these demons should be held accountable for their and his own actions.Secondly people reported that these vicious killing machines roamed the street for days surely these people reported it to the police if so why did the police not remove the dogs before they injured some one.Australian Dog HeadBefore the nun was attacked an injury was reported also caused by these beasts it is obvious that the police would have known about this but did they remove the dogs. So the inju ries caused by these dogs were partly the fault of police incompetence.As you can se there are a few groups at fault here; the dogs who most definitely will be killed, the owner of the animals who will most likely suffer legal consequences in the form of a law suit and may even have to spend time in jail. The police will get away without any penalties. All of the people and animals involved in this situation are lucky in the sense that neither the nun nor the other person who was attacked by the dogs died. Finally I want to say that I hope that this never happens in...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Anarchism and Anarchist Terrorism

Anarchism and Anarchist Terrorism Anarchism was a late 19th-century idea among a number of Europeans, Russians, and Americans that all government should be abolished, and that voluntary cooperation, rather than force, should be societys organizing principle. The word itself comes from a Greek word, anarkos, which means without a chief. The movement had its origins in the search for a way to give industrial working classes a political voice in their societies. By the turn of the 20th century, anarchism was already on the wane, to be replaced by other movements encouraging the rights of dispossessed classes and revolution. Propaganda of the Deed A number of late 19th century thinkers argued that actions, rather than words, were the best way to spread ideas. The concept was adopted by anarchists. For some, it referred to communal violence, while for  others it referenced assassinations and bombings carried out by anarchists. Anarchist Terrorism The late 19th century saw a wave of political violence inspired by anarchist ideas which were subsequently  labeled anarchist terrorism: 1881: the assassination of Russian Tsar Alexander II, by the group Narodnaya Volya1894: the assassination of the French president Marie-Francois Sadi Carnot1894: Bombing of Greenwich Observatory in London1901: the assassination of American president William McKinley in September 1901, by an anarchist, Leon Czolgosz. These assassinations led to fear among governments that there existed a vast international conspiracy of anarchist terrorists. In fact, there never was one. Anarchists Today: No Connection to Religious Terrorism or War on Terror Anarchists themselves argue that they should not be considered terrorists, or associated with terrorism. Their claims are reasonable: for one thing, most anarchists  actually oppose the use of violence to achieve political aims, and for another, violence by anarchists was historically directed at political figures, not civilians, as terrorism is. On a different note, Rick Coolsaet suggests  there is an analogy to be made between the past and the present. Muslims are often regarded now with the same mixture of fear and contempt as workers were in the 19th century. And the jihadi terrorist has the same feelings about America as his anarchist predecessor had about the bourgeoisie: he sees it as the epitome of arrogance and power. Osama bin Laden is a 21st century Ravachol, a living symbol of hatred and resistance for his followers, a bogeyman for the police and intelligence services. Today’s jihadis resemble yesterday’s anarchists: in reality, a myriad of tiny groups; in their own eyes, a vanguard rallying the oppressed masses (5). Saudi Arabia has now taken the role of Italy while 11 September 2001 is the modern version of 24 June 1894, a wake-up call to the international community.The reasons for the rise of terrorism now and anarchism then are the same. Muslims worldwide are united by a sense of unease and crisis. The Arab world seems to be more bitter, more cynical and less creative than it was in the 1980s. There is a growing sense of solidarity with other Muslims, a feeling that Islam itself is in danger. This is fertile ground for a fanatical minority.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

HRM and Sustainability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

HRM and Sustainability - Essay Example The research report explores the main aspects of HRM to drive future sustainability among organizations. The relationship between HRM and sustainability is extremely complex. Traditionally, HR contributes to organizations’ performance, by having HR policies aligned with the strategic goals of the organization, legal compliance, better customer satisfaction, and effective service delivery. Sustainability requires that HRM moves beyond the boundaries of traditional HR policies, toward leadership development, talent management, and knowledge management. The term sustainability is widely used in almost all sciences (Ehnert 2009). The notion of sustainability has already become a synonym of profitability and long-term development in organizations (Ehnert 2009). Apart from the fact that different organizations define the concept of sustainability in entirely different ways, the link between HRM and sustainability remains poorly understood. The body of research on Human Resource Mana gement and its relation to sustainability is very scarce (Wehling et al. 2009). As such it is high time to re-evaluate the topic of the HRM-sustainability relationship in more detail. The purpose of this research report is to explore the links between HRM and sustainability and propose recommendations to let organizations achieve sustainability through HRM. The significance of sustainability initiatives in organizations cannot be overstated. Researchers are becoming more interested in the relationship between sustainability and HRM.

Reflection on the Development and Application of a Fundamental Nursing Essay - 1

Reflection on the Development and Application of a Fundamental Nursing Skill in Nursing Practice - Essay Example While Scoliosis is the curving of the spine away from the midline, hence goes sideways (Burtner, et al., 1999, pp.748-57). Spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy patients and the feeding process I realized that patients with health conditions such as James have difficulties when it comes to feeding since he has problems with personal control and swallowing of food and drinks. For that purpose, keen nursing care needed to be given to ensure that the patient feeds and drinks well and is not suffocated in the process as fluid or food particles are likely to accidently sucked into the lungs. The swallowing process is governed by the swallowing centre in the medulla, and in the mid-oesophagus and distal oesophagus by largely autonomous peristaltic reflex that are coordinated by the enteric nervous system. If in the process of swallowing respiration does not stop, fluids and other food particles may enter the lungs causing suffocation (WGO, 2007). During the entire period and specifically dur ing the above mentioned event, other experienced care assistants were available to guide me through the process besides the mentor whom I had been assigned to. The purpose of being at this care home was to learn and improve on my skills of handling people with mental disability and James proved to be the best person to observe and learn from and thus fit a case study description. In the process of fluid feeding, it was important that I have a personal beaker that was dedicated to this activity and for this patient. His beaker was blue with small holes and a spout. Dysphagia may occur in two primary forms and these include Oropharyngeal Dysphagia where patients have a problem initiating a swallow as... The researcher talks about his five week program at a learning disability care home situated on the northwest of England. It was quite an experience and worked as an eye opener in my nursing career. At the time of his placement and throughout the period, the author of the paper happened to observe and took part in a program aimed at feeding the residents within the learning disability care home. In this program, the researcher focused mainly on a resident called James (real name withheld for confidentiality reasons) the NMC Code of conduct require nurses to respect patient confidentiality at all times. In this work the researcher will be using the Gibbs reflective cycle 1998 to guide him in writing and reflecting his thoughts and feelings about his experience. The Gibbs reflective cycle consists of six stages of and helps leaners reflect on what they have learnt or experiences they have gone through. This patient has a medical history of spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy; he suffer s from epilepsy and also scoliosis. As a result of his health condition, James has developed dysphagia- the difficulty someone may have in initiating a wallow or the sensation that foods or liquids are somehow hindered in their passage from mouth to stomach- and for that reason he has to eat and drink in a way that does not harm him and relies on nursing assistance. The author of this article tells that his experience while working at the disability care home exposed him to various issues that are considered in the management of patients with cerebral palsy.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Project Budgeting and Scheduling Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Project Budgeting and Scheduling - Essay Example PPP/PFI basically works like any other project whose construction costs are borne by another party, completed and handed over to the client, only on a very large scale. In case of failure in the design structure, non-compliance with the project particulars, etc. the risk is assumed by the financing party. This project risk transfer method is seen as an extension of outsourcing and privatization. However, it is different from privatization because the private entity hands over the project to the government after completion and the government runs it as state owned facility/site. PPP/PFI differs from conventional procurement because the total payment is not made by the government after the completion of the project. It is paid over the course of time and several years of operations. This facilitates both the public and the private sector, because eth public sector does not have to make the payment and thus the cost is spread over a number of years. The risk of project failure is transf erred to the private entity responsible for the project. ... This is because the element of risk transfer also adds to the government’s borrowing costs. At its completion if the project is successful, the private sector gets to enjoy super normal profits at the expense of the government and the mass public in general due to taxation levied to pay off the debt. Thus, in order for the success of a PFI funded project to be deemed successful, it is imperative that the benefits derived from the project can be valued to be more than the borrowing cost (Ismail, 2011). PPP/PFI in UK The government of UK introduced PFI in the year 1992 (Wilson and Game, 2002). Even though the practice had been already implemented by countries like Australia previously, the UK gave it a more solid framework by specifying policies that would govern such financing practices of the government. Implementing the PFI practice at large for capital investments allowed the UK to hone it into an ideal framework that could be taken as benchmarks by the other governments of the world. Not long after it had this system running, the National Audit Office in the UK demanded that even though there was no question of its effectiveness, this procurement transaction had to be shown in the governments’ financials and a much hyped controversy emerged regarding which accounting head it should be put under and the accounting that it was to imply. It was however decided that the future payments for the PFI during the concession period should be taken into account for budgeting for the years to come, leading to effective assessments that can be reflected in the budget. The terms PPP/PFI are used interchangeably all over the world but PFI gives a clearer picture to the concept. During the credit crisis of 2008, many private

The impact of Southwest Airlines on Commercial Aviation Research Paper

The impact of Southwest Airlines on Commercial Aviation - Research Paper Example 311). Along the way, it refined its low price strategy by cutting down on food and beverage offerings, mandating open seating which increases capacity, flying only one type of plane, locking in low fuel prices when the fuel prices spiked in 2008, and favoring secondary markets such as Chicago Midway over congested markets, such as Chicago O’Hare. These strategies helped Southwest cut prices, and the result of Southwest’s ability to slash prices has been nothing short of astounding on the entire airline industry, resulting in fare cuts across the board, and substantially increasing airport traffic for the airports that serve Southwest in relation to airports that do not. The result of the impact of Southwest Airlines on the airline industry has been so significant that it was given a name – the â€Å"Southwest Effect†. Different studies have done different analyses on the Southwest Effect. Morrison (2001) performed a study on the aggregate effect of Southwest on Southwest’s competition, then compared the aggregate estimate with fare reductions that were the result of deregulation, as a way to quantify Southwest’s effect on the success of deregulation (Morrison, 2001, p. 241). Morrison stated that the airfares on a given route are influenced by another airline in three ways. First, is when the other airline serve a given route; second, when the other airline serves an adjacent route that is seen by consumers to be a reasonable alternative to the first route; and third, the other airline affects fares if the existing airlines on a route lower their fares in order to keep out potential competitors (Morrison, 2001, p. 241). Morrison quantified Southwest’s impact on each of these categories, stating that there was a potential for Southwest to impact 94% of domestic passenger miles (Morrison, 2001, p. 243). His unit of measurement for this impact was an equation

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Challenges in the Korean Protestants dealing with ancestor worship Term Paper

Challenges in the Korean Protestants dealing with ancestor worship - Term Paper Example The challenge faced by protestant Christians when dealing with ancestor worship can be attributed to the fact that there existed other religious beliefs that had helped propagate the practice in the Korean society over the years, especially traditional religions. Consequently, this essay provides a critical analysis of the challenges that Protestants have faced in their dealing with ancestor worship especially since they have always sought to protect the Christian doctrine from adopting any form of practice that would imply absorption of aspects of ancestor worship. The diverse nature of religion in both South and North Korea is exemplified by the study conducted by Johnson and Hickman, which indicate there are five and four types of religion with each claiming about 10 percent Korean population being their members (14). This paints a clear picture of the interaction between different religions among members of the Korean population. These figures represent the growth of region in Korea with Christianity also achieving huge success in the society. The growth in Christianity is significant especially when considering that Protestants make up the second largest group of worshippers being second to Buddhism, which was, introduced to the Koreans years earlier that Christianity. Protestant churches entered Korea in the 1800s and has since attracted millions of members with approximately 60 000 Protestant churches operating in the in the region in addition to having about 100 000 ministers and 12 000 overseas missions (Kim, Jung Han 132). Even with this development and continued growth of Christianity, ancestor worship has continued to be exercised within Korean society. Although the protestant doctrine does not support ancestor worship, and there are other factors outside Protestant Christianity that has contributed to the maintenance of this practice in the Korean society. To make an assessment of what has sustained the practice of

Assessment research assignmnet Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Assessment assignmnet - Research Paper Example This power imbalance arises at various stages of the employment relationship, commencing when they seek employment and extends even after their employment has been terminated (Hogbin, 2006, p.13). This theory was propagated by Karl Marx who argued that the bargaining table was tilted in favor of the employer, and who could, as a result, exploit their stronger bargaining position to the detriment of the employees; driving their wages to subsistence levels (Hogbin, 2006, p.1). This imbalance necessitates special regulations in the labor sector. In addition, it is a fundamental human right under the International Labor Organization (ILO). It is enshrined in two key ILO conventions; 87 and 98- 1948 Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize and Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining (1949) respectively, both of which have been ratified by Australia. Individual contracting, while it can be useful for those with strong bargaining power, it is not a solution to empl oyees without bargaining power and can be used to undermine labor standards (Cooper, Ellem & Todd, 2012, p.7). According to Sewerynski (2003, p.223) collective bargaining has a horde of benefits to both the employer and the employee. It enhances the strength and stature of employee unions. They also harmonize employment conditions across the industry and seek to eliminate chances of labor disputes. To add, it has a way of increasing the weight of employee’s dispute. This is because if a complaint is made by an individual employee, the employer can easily ignore it with minimal repercussions. Prior to 1993, there were no legal provisions for collective bargaining in Australia. Nevertheless, the system was collective in nature, with informal collective bargaining taking place in the form of negotiation over award payments, and industrial actions (ACTU, 2006, p.5). Subsequent agreements were given legal effect through consent awards subject to the approval of the commission. In addition, for almost a century, arbitration tribunals had settled industrial disputes between employer and employees, through making and awards that applied to the whole industry that applied to all employees, whether or not they were members of a union (Cooper, Ellem & Todd, 2012, p.5). Subsequently, the Howard government was determined to eliminate this collectivism from the system, instead, advocating for individual contracts (ACTU, 2006, 4). Some of the changes introduced affected collectivisms on two fronts; there were those that were designed to alter collective bargaining, and those meant to impair the effectiveness of the trade unions. This was achieved through the enactment of the Workplace Relations Act, 1996 and the Work Choices amendments of 2005(Cooper, Ellem & Todd, 2012, p.5). The former, was the first Employment relations legislation to make use of corporation power provided under section 51(XX) of the Australian Constitution rather than the conciliation and arbitrat ion power under section 51(XXXV) (IRJ, n.d. 23). With regards to bargaining, the 1996 Act introduced statutory Australian Workplace Agreements (AWAs). AWAs could override both the awards and collective agreements. In fact, such agreements could form a pre-condition of employment

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Challenges in the Korean Protestants dealing with ancestor worship Term Paper

Challenges in the Korean Protestants dealing with ancestor worship - Term Paper Example The challenge faced by protestant Christians when dealing with ancestor worship can be attributed to the fact that there existed other religious beliefs that had helped propagate the practice in the Korean society over the years, especially traditional religions. Consequently, this essay provides a critical analysis of the challenges that Protestants have faced in their dealing with ancestor worship especially since they have always sought to protect the Christian doctrine from adopting any form of practice that would imply absorption of aspects of ancestor worship. The diverse nature of religion in both South and North Korea is exemplified by the study conducted by Johnson and Hickman, which indicate there are five and four types of religion with each claiming about 10 percent Korean population being their members (14). This paints a clear picture of the interaction between different religions among members of the Korean population. These figures represent the growth of region in Korea with Christianity also achieving huge success in the society. The growth in Christianity is significant especially when considering that Protestants make up the second largest group of worshippers being second to Buddhism, which was, introduced to the Koreans years earlier that Christianity. Protestant churches entered Korea in the 1800s and has since attracted millions of members with approximately 60 000 Protestant churches operating in the in the region in addition to having about 100 000 ministers and 12 000 overseas missions (Kim, Jung Han 132). Even with this development and continued growth of Christianity, ancestor worship has continued to be exercised within Korean society. Although the protestant doctrine does not support ancestor worship, and there are other factors outside Protestant Christianity that has contributed to the maintenance of this practice in the Korean society. To make an assessment of what has sustained the practice of

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Violence in the Ancient World Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Violence in the Ancient World - Essay Example As the report declares falling back on Homer’s Odyssey once again, it provides good examples of how violence was used for dominance though; it is being carried out in the name of self-protection and preserving the lives of others. The example this research will use to prove the often times, brutal and violent forms of survival will be directly from the book, â€Å"Odyssey XI† and the primary focus on the battle with the Cyclops. According to the report findings the idea on the prevalence of violence in the Ancient world is so vivid in the battle with this monster of mythology. First, the Cyclops presents a form of early control and power over Odysseus and his crew which is clearly evident in the following verse, â€Å"As thus he spoke, our very souls were crushed within us, dismayed by the heavy voice and by the monsters self; nevertheless I answered thus and said†. Violence begets fear and the Cyclops girth alone was enough for the crew to feel already beaten before the battle. Though Odysseus tried to use tricky talk, in an attempt to persuade the Cyclops to spare killing any of his men, it did not work and a violent scene spewed forth from the books pages. Following was one of the more horrid and brutally descriptive violent acts depicted. This passage details how the Cyclops dashed members of the crew to the ground, ripping and tearing their limbs and crushing their skulls, whilst their brains spi lled to the earth and dampened the grass. This actually makes the reader cringe due to such abundant and grotesque violent behavior.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Sociology Research Essay Example for Free

Sociology Research Essay Sexism is also known as  gender discrimination  or  sex discrimination, is defined as prejudice or discrimination based on sex; or behavior, conditions, or attitudes that foster stereotypes of social roles based on sex. Sexism is a form of discrimination or devaluation based on a persons sex, with such attitudes being based on beliefs in traditional stereotypes of gender roles. The term  sexism  is most often used in relation to discrimination against women, in the context of patriarchy. Sexism involves hatred of or prejudice towards a gender as a whole or the application of gender stereotypes. Sexism is often associated with gender-supremacy arguments. Gender stereotypes A 1952 magazine feature stereotyping women drivers. Gender stereotypes are widely held beliefs about the characteristics and behavior of women and men. Gender stereotypes are not only descriptive, but also prescriptive beliefs about how men and women should be and behave. Members of either sex who deviate from prescriptive gender stereotypes are punished; assertive women, for example, are called bitches whereas men who lack physical strength are seen as wimps. Empirical studies have found widely shared cultural beliefs that men are more socially valued and more competent than women at most things, as well as specific assumptions that men are better at some particular tasks (e. g. , mechanical tasks) while women are better at others (e. g. , nurturing tasks). For example,  Fiske  and colleagues surveyed nine diverse samples, from different regions of the United States, and found that members of these samples, regardless of age, consistently rated the category men higher than the category women on a multidimensional scale of competence. Gender stereotypes can facilitate and impede intellectual performance. For instance,  stereotype threat  can lower womens performance on mathematics tests due to the stereotype that women have inferior quantitative skills compared with men. Stereotypes can also affect the assessments people make of their own competence. Studies found that specific stereotypes (e. g. , women have lower mathematical ability) affect women’s and men’s perceptions of their abilities (e. g. , in math and science) such that men assess their own task ability higher than women performing at the same level. These biased self-assessments have far-reaching effects because they can shape men and women’s educational and career decisions. Gender stereotypes are sometimes applied at an early age. Various interventions were reviewed including the use of fiction in challenging gender stereotypes. For example, in a study by A. Wing, children were read  Bills New Frock  by  Anne Fine. The content of the book was discussed with them. Children were able to articulate, and reflect on, their stereotypical constructions of gender and those in the world at large. There was evidence of children considering the different treatment that boys and girls receive, and of classroom discussion enabling stereotypes to be challenged. Sexist and gender-neutral language Research has found that the use of  he  as a generic pronoun evokes a disproportionate number of male images and excludes thoughts of women in non gender-specific instances. Results also suggest that while the plural  they  functions as a generic pronoun for both males and females, males may comprehend  he/she  in a manner similar to  he, as  he  usually is placed before the dash and  she  after. This is usually done because the word  she  already contains the word  he  so it is positioned after the dash. It also has nothing to do with stereotypical gender roles. Nearing the end of the 20th century, there is a rise in gender-neutral language in western worlds, which is often attributed to the rise of  feminism. Gender-neutral language  is the avoidance of  gender-specific job titles, non parallel usage, and other usage that is considered by some to be sexist. Supporters claim that having gender–specific titles and gender–specific pronouns either implies a systemic bias to exclude individuals based on their gender or else as unnecessary in most cases as race-specific pronouns, religion-specific pronouns, or persons-height-specific pronouns. Some of those who support gender-specific pronouns assert that promoting gender-neutral language is a kind of semantics injection itself. Anthropological linguistics and gender-specific language Unlike the  Indo-European languages  in the west, for many other  languages  around the world,  gender-specific pronouns  are a recent phenomenon that occurred around the early 20th century. As a result of  colonialism, cultural revolution occurred in many parts of the world with attempts to modernize and westernize by adding gender-specific pronouns and animate-inanimate pronouns to local languages. This resulted in the situation of what was  gender-neutral pronouns  a century ago suddenly becoming gender–specific. (See for example  Gender-neutrality in languages without grammatical gender: Turkish. ) Gender-specific pejorative terms Gender–specific pejorative terms intimidate or harm another person because of their gender. Sexism can be expressed in a pseudo–subtle manner through the attachment of terms which have negative gender oriented implications  such as through  condescension. Many examples include swear words. A mildly vulgar example is the uninformative attribution of the term hag for a woman or fairy for a man. Although hag and fairy both have non-sexist interpretations, when they are used in the context of a gender–specific pejorative term these words become representations of sexist attitudes. The relationship between rape and misogyny Research into the factors which motivate perpetrators of  rape  against a specific gender, for example, women, frequently reveals patterns of hatred of said gender and pleasure in inflicting psychological and/or physical trauma, rather than sexual interest. Researchers have argued that rape is not the result of pathological individuals, but rather systems of male dominance, cultural practices and beliefs that objectify and degrade women. Mary Odem, Jody Clay-Warner and Susan Brownwiller consider sexist attitudes to be propagated by a series of myths about rape and rapists. They state that contrary to those myths, rapists often plan a rape before they choose a victim and that acquaintance rape  is the most common form of rape rather than assault by a stranger. Odem also states that these rape myths propagate sexist attitudes about men by perpetuating the thought that men cannot control their sexuality. In response to  acquaintance rape, the Men Can Stop Rape movement has been implemented. The US military has started a similar movement with the tagline My strength is for defending. Occupational sexism Occupational sexism refers to any  discriminatory  practices, statements, actions, etc. based on a persons  sex  that are present or occur in a place of  employment. One form of occupational sexism is  wage discrimination. In 2008, the  Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development  (OECD) found that while female employment rates have expanded considerably and the gender employment and wage gaps have narrowed virtually everywhere, on average, women still have 20% less of a chance to have a job and are paid 17% less than men. Moreover, the report stated: [In] many countries, labor market  discrimination  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ i. e. the unequal treatment of equally productive individuals only because they belong to a specific group – is still a crucial factor inflating disparities in employment and the quality of job opportunities [ ] Evidence presented in this edition of the  Employment Outlook  suggests that about 8% of the variation in gender employment gaps and 30% of the variation in gender wage gaps across OECD countries can be explained by discriminatory practices in the labour market. The report also found that despite the fact that almost all OECD countries, including the U. S. have established anti-discrimination laws, these laws are difficult to enforce. Gender stereotypes Gender roles  (or sex roles) are attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex. A culture that defines males as ambitious and competitive encourages them to seek out positions of leadership and play team sports. To the extent that females are defined as deferential and emotional, they are expected to be supportive helpers and quick to show their feelings. According to the  OECD, womens labor market behavior is influenced by learned cultural and social values that may be thought to discriminate against women (and sometimes against men) by stereotyping certain work and life styles as male or female. Further, the OECD argues that womens educational choices may be dictated, at least in part, by their expectations that [certain] types of employment opportunities are not available to them, as well as by gender stereotypes that are prevalent in society. There is a long record of women being excluded from participation in many professions. Often, women have gained entry into a previously male profession only to be faced with additional obstacles. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman to receive an M. D. in the  United States  and  Myra Bradwell, the first female lawyer in the state of  Illinois, illustrate the prevalence of women being excluded from certain professions and the changing culture. Professional discrimination continues today according to studies done by  Cornell University  and others. Some have hypothesized that gender bias has been influencing which scientific research gets published. This hypothesis coincides with a test conducted at the  University of Toronto  led by Amber Budden. The study showed that, in the journal  Behavioral Ecology, after implementation of double-blind review in which both the author and reviewer identity is concealed, there was an increase of 7. 9% in the number of papers authored by women. This was more than three times the increase of female ecology graduate students in the United States. In addition, women frequently earn significantly lower wages than their male counterparts who perform the same job. In the U. S. , for example, women earn an average of 23. 5% less than men. In 1833, women working in factories earned only one-quarter of mens wages, and in 2007, womens median annual paychecks reflected only $0. 78 for every $1. 00 earned by men. A study showed women comprised 87% of workers in the child care industry and 86% of the health aide industry. Some experts believe that parents play an important role in the creation of values and perceptions of their children. The fact that many girls are asked to help their mothers do housework, while many boys do technical tasks with their fathers, seems to influence their behavior and can sometimes discourage girls from performing such tasks. Girls will then think that each gender should have a specific role and behavior. A 2009 study found that being overweight harms womens career advancement but presents no barrier for men. Overweight  or  obese  women were significantly under-represented among company bosses, whereas a significant proportion of male executives were overweight or obese. The author of the study stated that the results suggest that the glass ceiling effect on womens advancement may reflect not only general negative stereotypes about the competencies of women, but also weight bias that results in the application of stricter appearance standards to women. Overweight women are evaluated more negatively than overweight men. There is a tendency to hold women to harsher weight standards. At other times, there are accusations that some traditionally female professions have been or are being eliminated by its roles being subsumed by a male dominated profession. The assumption of baby delivery roles by doctors with the subsequent decline of  midwifery  is sometimes claimed to be an example. Wage gap [pic] Euro stat  found a persisting gender pay gap of 17. 5% on average in the 27  EU Member States  in 2008. Similarly, the OECD  found that female full-time employees earned 17% less than their male counterparts across OECD countries in 2009. In the U. S. , the female-to-male earnings ratio was 0. 77 in 2009, meaning that, in 2009, female full-time, year round (FTYR) workers earned 77% as much as male FYTR workers. Womens earnings relative to mens fell from 1960 to 1980 (from 60. 7 percent to 60. 2%) and then rose rapidly from 1980 to 1990 (from 60. 2% to 71. 6%), and less rapidly from 1990 to 2000 (from 71. 6% to 73. 7%) and from 2000 to 2009 (from 73. 7% to 77. 0%). At the time when the first  Equal Pay Act  was passed in 1963, female full-time workers earned 58. 9% as much as male full-time workers. The gender pay gap has been attributed to differences in personal and workplace characteristics between women and men (education, hours worked, occupation etc. as well as direct and indirect discrimination in the labor market (gender stereotypes, customer and employer bias, etc. ). Studies always find that some portion of the gender pay gap remains unexplained even after controlling factors that are assumed to influence earnings. The unexplained portion of the wage gap is attributed to gender discrimination. The estimates for the discriminatory component of the gender pay gap vary widely. The OECD estimated that approximately 30% of the gender pay gaps across OECD countries is due to discrimination. Australian research shows that discrimination accounts for approximately 60% of the wage differentials between women and men. Studies examining the gender pay gap in the United States  show that large parts of the wage differential remain unexplained even after controlling for factors that affect pay. One study examined college graduates and found that the portion of the pay gap that remains unexplained after all other factors are taken into account is 5% one year after graduating college and 12% 10 years after graduation. Research done at  Cornell University  and elsewhere indicates that mothers are less likely to get hired than equally qualified fathers and, if hired, would be paid a lower salary than male applicants with children. The  OECD  found that a significant impact of children on women’s pay is generally found in the United Kingdom and the United States. ]  Fathers, on the other hand, earn  $7,500 more on average that than men without children. Glass ceiling The term glass ceiling is used to describe a perceived barrier to advancement based on discrimination, particularly gender discrimination. In academic achievement, great improvements have been made. However, as of 1995 in the United States, women received about half of all Masters degrees, but 95 to 97% of the senior managers of Fortune 1000 Industrial and Fortune 500 companies were male and in the Fortune 2000 Industrial and service companies, only 5% of senior managers were women. The  United Nations  asserts progress in bringing women into leadership and decision making positions around the world remains far too slow. Objectification Some argue that  sexual objectification  is a form of sexism. Some countries, such as  Norway  and  Denmark, have laws against sexual objectification in advertising. Nudity itself is not banned, and nude people can be used to advertise a product, but only if they are relevant to what is being advertised. Sol Olving, head of Norways Kreativt Forum, an association of the countrys top advertising agencies, explained, You could have a naked person advertising shower gel or a cream, but not a woman in a bikini draped across a car. Sexism in the Workplace Sexism in education is clearly associated with sexism in the workplace. When women are expected to â€Å"stay in the home,† they are unable to access the necessary educational resources to compete with men in the job market. If by chance they are able to secure a position, women may be less prepared educationally for the task, and thus draw lower wages. In recent decades more women have entered the United States workforce. After WWII (from about 1947), about 30 percent of women were employed outside the home; today, at the start of the 21st century, the figure is well over 50 percent. (Some estimates approach 75 percent if â€Å"part-time† jobs are included. Yet women are far from treated equally on the job. Typically, they hold lower-paying, lower-status jobs than men. In fact, women may account for only 25 percent of the upper-level managers in large corporations. And although half of the employees in the largest, most prestigious firms around the United States may be women, perhaps as few as 5 percent or less actually hold senior positions. In general, women are under-represented in the higher-status, higher-paying occupations, such as university teaching, law, engineering, and medicine. In contrast, women are over-represented in the lower-paying occupations, such as public-school teaching, nursing, and secretarial work. In stereotypical female jobs, referred to as  womens ghettos, women are subordinate to the positions of men. For example, executives supervise secretaries who are likely to be women, and lawyers supervise paralegals, who are also likely to be women. Women in the same jobs as men usually earn less, even though these women may have the same or better training, education, and skills. As a general statistic, women make only 60 percent or less than men in comparable positions. Why this disparity? Sociologists speculate that, in some cases, the fact that women often must take time off to have and raise children interrupts their career path. As much as Americans may hate to admit it, women in the United States still bear the primary responsibilities of child-rearing. Conflicting demands may partly explain why married women with children are more likely to leave their jobs than are childless and single women. Also, men are seen as the â€Å"chief bread winners,† so the belief is that they should be paid more than women in order to support their families. Whatever the reason, paying women less than men for equally demanding work is discrimination.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

To Kill A Mockingbird The Maturing of Jem Finch Essay examples -- Kil

To Kill A Mockingbird   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     The Maturing of Jem Finch   Ã‚  Ã‚   Society is not as innocent to a child as it may appear to be. In fact, when one really understands the society in which he lives he is no longer a child. This is much the same case as found in To Kill A Mockingbird, by Leigh Harper. Although Jem, being a child at the beginning of the novel, is immature and unaware of the society in which he lives, he matures mentally to the point where he sees the evil in society and gains a knowledge of death.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Like most children, at the beginning of To Kill A Mockingbird Jem and Scout are both young, play together, and have childhood monsters or fears like other children. Primarily, in To Kill A Mockingbird, Jem is young. Scout states their age when it supposedly all starts: "When I was almost six and Jem was almost ten..." (10). Here Jem is only nine years old and therefore still a moderately young child; it is assumed he is therefore immature. Jem also spends his time playing with his five year old sister. This also occurs very early in the novel: "Early one morning as we were beginning our day's play in the back yard, Jem and I heard something next door in Miss Rachel Haverford's collard patch." (11). As the novel progresses, Jem no longer plays with his sister Scout, but he is doing so at this point and he would appear to anyone as one child playing with his sister. Lastly, Jem has childhood fears like most any child does. All children have their fears or monsters. In Jem's case it i rthur Radley, commonly known as Boo:   Ã‚  Ã‚   " Let's try and make him come out..."   Ã‚  Ã‚   Jem said if he... ...ttacked by the vengeful Bob Ewell:   Ã‚  Ã‚   We were nearly to the road when I felt Jem's hand leave me, felt him   Ã‚  Ã‚   jerk back- wards to the ground. More scuffling, and there came a dull   Ã‚  Ã‚   crunching sound Jem screamed. (265)   Ã‚  Ã‚   Here Jem gains an awareness of his own life, his own mortality. These three deaths each had a their own individual effect on Jem, but Jem definitely gained an accomplished knowledge of death. Thus, Jem is a child at the beginning of To Kill A Mockingbird but does mature, gaining a sense of the society surrounding him and a knowledge, or a mature awareness, of death. Jem doesn't gain these mental developements easily but through much struggling, and this is exactly what To Kill A Mockingbird is all about; a struggle with society and learning by placing one's self in another's shoes.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Line Between Feudalism and Capitalism :: Economics Economical Government Papers

The Line Between Feudalism and Capitalism We consider America to be a capitalist nation, but what exactly makes it capitalist? Webster’s dictionary defines capitalism as an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, especially as contrasted to cooperatively or state owned wealth. Capitalism affects the people in it on a daily basis; it affects the way they live their daily lives. A break down in this, supposedly perfect, economic system may occur resulting in a case of feudalism. This can still be found today even, in America. Feudalism is defined in Webster’s dictionary as a system of political organizations prevailing in Europe from the 9th to 15th centuries having as its basis the relation of lord to vassal with all land held in fee and as chief characteristics homage, the service of tenants under arms and in court, ward ship, and forfeiture. There are define d social differences and similarities between capitalism and feudalism; these differences can be seen when comparing and contrasting the reality-based movies Norma Rae and Matewan. There are many similarities between Norma Rae and Matewan making it hard at times to see which economic system is feudalism and which is capitalism. These similarities cause confusion, even today, in deciding what can be considered feudalism and what can be considered capitalism. This is because in both systems the employers have a significant amount of control over their employees' lives. Both movies are about employees in large factory situations trying to better their working conditions by unionizing the company. Neither the Stone Mountain Coal Company, in Matewan nor the O.P. Henley Textile Mill, in Norma Rae seemed to truly care about the welfare of their employees. For example, in Matewan the coal miners were suffering from the coal dust cutting their lungs. This problem could have been easily alleviated, had the company cared, by providing the employees with masks. Another major problem was the premature explosions in the mine, which were also caused by coal dust and often resulted in death. This problem would have been more difficult to remedy, but it could have been done. The company just didn't care enough about the lives of its workers to spend the money necessary to correct the problem.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Proposing an Hris System Essay

Planning the future of the organization will require training, and mentoring from key employees. The current Human Resource Information System does not support the information that is required to complete the project. Management is proposing to implement a new Human Resource Information System. Human Resource Information System is a computerized system designed to bring together information for strategic planning, operational, and, administrative. The most time spent in Human Resource is administrative management. Human Resource Information System is designed to improve efficiency and assist with streamlining paperwork. There are five major categories in a business that the Human Resource Information System supports. Labor relations in the HRIS will support Union negotiation, employee information, and auditing records. Human Resource Planning and Analysis supports organizational charts, attendance analysis, job description tracking, staffing, recruiting, and turnover analysis. Compensation and benefits, wages, benefits, vacation, and pay structures. Compliance regulations are also supported by HRIS; Equal Opportunity Employment, workforce utilization, and applicant tracking. Safety and training development are also supported by the HRIS software. HRIS software is available by many different software companies; the following are just a few HRIS software that are available. Bamboo Human Resource Software, Employee Connect Software, Human Resources Microsystems, J. D. Edwards Enterprise One, and Employee Connect. The software must be compatible with the organizations current job-costing system and will require the reports to coincide. This will need to be a customized feature and will require a tailored software. The software listed above is available to as is and will not support our job cost software. Management would like to implement a new Human Resource Information System before the new fiscal year. The new fiscal year begins in April 2013. The first process will be posting a Request for pricing from multiple pre-qualified Human Resource Information System Software companies. The schedule will only allow a maximum of one month to select a final vendor to begin the process of tailoring the software. The concerns that management have are some of the organizational factors, such as labor force, company budgets, bad planning, and competition. Labor force is down due to budget cuts and the transition to new software will require overtime and possibly hiring temporary help for data entry. The current company budget does not have the profit to support a substantial increase in additional labor. The planning schedule for a new Human Resource Information System will need to be monitored closely. Management is concerned about the possibility of going over schedule and increasing the labor cost more than more than what is in the budget. Management has come up with a budget of forty-five thousand dollars. This budget includes the cost of software, labor force, and new equipment to support the new Human Resource Information System. The return on investment for the new software and equipment that management hopes for will be worth more than the cost. The benefits of having a Human Resource Information System that produces reports for compensation, time off, and labor needs. The new Human Resource Information System will also give our organization the ability to be competitive in capturing labor trends and needs. Planning for the future of the organization will also be a huge benefit factor. The time and cost that will be saved over time will pay for the upgrade in less than two years. When the system is up and running management foresees that four full-time positions will need to be eliminated due to the efficiency and lack of work for the four workers. References Chauhan, A. , Sharma, S. , & Tyagi, T. (2011). Role of HRIS in Improving Modern HR Operations. Review Of Management, 1(2), 58-70.