Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Romeo And Juliet Play And Movie Comparison Film Studies Essay The crown of English literature for plays, embedded with timeless and priceless gems, rests certainly on the head of William Shakespeare. Shakespeare has created masterpieces in every possible genres of play. Romeo and Juliet is an everlasting (or ever grey due to tragic over tones?!) play which draws undivided or unparallel attention of the writers even during this modern era. Apart from enjoying immense popularity when it was enacted as a drama during the early part of the sixteenth century, the beginning of mid twentieth century witnessed this play being converted into movies in 1968, and 1996. Both the movies stayed faithful to the original storyline; however, the 1996 version, Baz Lurhmann adopted the storyline to reflect the revealing trend of dispute among two feuding families. It is an exciting task to make a detailed study of the play, and its comparison in different aspect with the immensely popular 1996 version directed by the Australian, Baz Lurhmann. Romeo and Juliet, though termed as tragedy carries more of Shakespeares comedy elements. Love is obviously the dominating and most vital theme of this play. The whole play is intertwined on the romantic love between Romeo and Juliet at their first sight. In this play, love supersede other characteristics such as loyalty, emotions etc. In this play, the lovers deny the family and the entire world and proceed with their marriage. This is evident from the words of Juliet, Or if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love, I / And Ill no longer be a Capulet (Romeo and Juliet. 2.2. 38-39). Romeo abandons his close friends, Mercutio and Benvolio and even risks his life and returns to Verona for the sake of his lady love even after being sent in exile. Love becomes a riding force for every incident narrated in the play. The lovers are emotionally triggered and take impulsive decisions; by this, they go against the norms of this world. Also, love is described as a religion. This is clear in the lines describing Romeo and Juliets first meeting. The readers can observe that Juliet has no words to explain her love for Romeo and thus refuses to describe it in words. But my true love is grown to such excess / I cannot sum up some of half my wealth (Romeo and Juliet 2.6. 33-34). Thus, it is clear that both the lovers are not able to explain their love and differentiate it with the society, family and religion. Their inability to draw line between their love and other ties can be said as a vital reason for their tragic end. By this, their love takes a back seat and death and violence occupies the front seat. The delicate ingredients of family feud, immature teenage aspirations and above all the raging love between the teenagers provides a great and ideal platform for Shakespeare to come up with an immortal tragedy. It is quite natural that film makers were inevitably attracted and motivated to make an interesting movie from the play. The project of making a movie on Romeo and Juliet certainly has some challenges to be encountered. Firstly, in the narrative, the vivid descriptions of the various scenarios are brought out in a several lines of verse; while the same can be made into a visual presentation involving much lesser times and words. Secondly, certain specific features in the realm of plays such as soliloquy are brought out in a distinctive style but picturization of the same is a different proposition altogether as the technical advancements has facilitated to project the actors expressions and bodily gestures by way of close-up shots and suitable editing in a forthright manner which is not possible in the play. Again, the advanced film making technique with avenues like lightning, wide variety of locales, costumes, advanced make-up facilities, make-up for an effective combination to produce excellent visual effects as compared to the limitations in the enactment of the play. Thus, the avenues are open for effecting the most picture perfect visualization. Baz Luhrmann has been successful in innovating the adaption of the screenplay in a different background scenario drawing a unique visual style, reflecting the politics and trends that existed in a combination of 1940s, 1970s and 1990s. Luhrmann deposits the play in the modern Verona beach; this can also be interpreted as reminding part decaying Miami and part Mexico City as frequent and high crime rate areas (Berardinelli, 1996). Accordingly, fast cars with roaring engines in the movie replace the horses in the play. Guns come in to occupy the place of swords and daggers. This kind of a hybrid with an old play in new setting makes a startling impression on the viewer. While trying to bring out the directors intent, it would be in order to bring out certain important scene of the play, especially pertaining to the love-scene. The way it has been brought out in picturization acquires a special credit. Firstly, the balcony scene is considered by many scholars to be the highlight of the play where the impact of youth love is brought out vibrantly to be stronger than all the forces that work against it. Luhrmann takes Shakespeares use of 190 lines and reduces it to 90 lines. He also switches the venue from the orchard to the swimming pool. However, he manages to retain the main intent of the lovers (Modern Film Adaptations of Shakespeare). Again, the camera work here is quite impressive: in usual cases the camera is moving frantically, however here the camera remains fixed in a tight close-up as Romeos dialogue, But, soft! What light through yonder window breaks? (Romeo and Juliet 2.2.2), and the camera stays extremely close to the lovers as they disco ver each other and realize how much they are attracted to each other and how deep in love they are with each other. This scene take place in the pool courtyard of the Capulet mansion and is noticeably more muted than other scenes; the importance of words and feelings gain ascendancy allowing Shakespeares poetry to come through in full bloom (Modern Film Adaptations of Shakespeare). While essaying on the directors perspective, it is worthwhile to discuss about the technical credits of the movie: the camera is always seen roving around; there are many instances in the movie where rapid cuts and screaming soundtrack might make the viewer doubt whether he is watching a rock-video! Also, the camera tricks, the special effects such as a roiling storm and the rebellious splash of colors right through the movie gains priority relegating the romantic theme into the background, in the process, lose certain more intangibles of intricate romance. This is more manifested in the first few scenes of the movie and tends to get corrected as it progresses. In conclusion, any adaptation of a Shakespeare play is determined by two major factors. The first is the competence of the director. The second factor is the ability of the main cast members. Any other innovations and unconventional flourishes applied by the director and technicians will not carry any significance. With these viewpoints, the litterateur can appreciate that the play Romeo and Juliet has fallen in the capable hands of directors and actors such as Luhrmann, DiCaprio and Danes. This 1996 film version of the play, despite being interpreted as a loud and brash version, and despite being unacceptable to the high-level experts as a classic, it has certainly helped widen their perspective to venture into any movie that bears the credit based on play by William Shakespeare.
Monday, January 20, 2020
1940-1949 In the United States during the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s, people were getting restless about the war. At the beginning of the 40Ã¢â¬â¢s, before the war started, life was pretty much normal and people were talking about how there might be a war. Finally, when the war began, life changed for most Americans. Men were enlisted and drafted to war. Women stayed home and worked numerous jobs to support their family. Industry slowed down so production of weapons, etc. could be produced and shipped to the war. Rationing had to be used so there would be enough food, water, etc. for people to use. It was a change for all people. During the 40Ã¢â¬â¢s, especially during the war times, Women had to play the role as mother and father. They had to carry on jobs their husbands used to do, maintain the household environment, and in some cases played baseball to keep the economy up and keep people happy. According to the book, American Decades, by Victor Bond, the war was what brought the country out of depression. The pressure to prepare and produce goods from for the war was enough to jump-start the economy. After the war, the economy kept booming and people were finally getting their lives back together. The beliefs and values in the United Sates were basically to live for the war, and deal with it. There wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t much else that could be done. People had husbands, brothers, sons, nephews, etc. entering the war. It took the effort of many Americans to stabilize their lives so that the war wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t bring them down. After the war however, the attitude in the country was very optimistic. People wanted to go to school and get an education. Industry took off again and people were back to their normal lives. Many couples had children. This craze of births is known... ...among blacks. Literature was influenced and art moved to an abstract expressionistic style. The economy grew and America began to regain its strength and power, and used it to grow. The 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s, what an amazing time in history. Works Cited Bond, Victor. American Decades, 1940-1949. Gale Research Inc. 1995 Williams, Neville. Chronology of World History, "The Modern World" 1901-1998. Volume IV. Helicon Publishing Limited, 1999 The ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Digest. Great Events of the 20th Century. The ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Digest Association Inc. 1997 University of Dayton Archives. Archives Collection, Albert Emmanuel Hall. -"Hallowed Memories" -"University of Dayton, from Nazareth to the new Millennium" 1850-2000. WDG Publishing. www.lovett.org/libraryweb/amstud.htm Perkins, George and Perkins, Barbara. The American Tradition in Literature. 9th Edition. McGraw-Hill. 1999
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Megumi Naomi Nakane, an innocent Child Essay In Joy KogawaÃ¢â¬â¢s Obasan, Naomi is an innocent child who suffers a great deal throughout the novel. The adults of the Nakane family go through a lot of trouble to protect NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s innocence just so Naomi could have a childhood like any other child. However much the adults tried, Naomi still sees the dark side of the world at an early age. Naomi does not understand some things that take place in her life and therefore, she finds toys and stories as a vent to express her emotions.In this novel, NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s innocence is crucial seeing that throughout the novel she is baffled and unsure about the incidents that occur in her life in addition to that she has to suffer for incidents she does not comprehend. To begin, the elders in NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s family endure a lot of pain at the hands of the Canadian government to shield Naomi as best they can. Everybody in NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s house is looking out for her. As Naomi narrates, Ã¢â¬Å"What ever [uncle] was intending to tell me Ã¢â¬ËsomedayÃ¢â¬â¢ has not yet been toldÃ¢â¬ which clarifies that uncle has been keeping something from her to shield her from all the wrongs in the world (Kogawa 3).Later on in the novel, it is read that similar to everyone in the family uncle has been concealing the fact that NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s mother had been brutally injured from the bombing at Nagasaki and also that following the injuries NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s mother had died after a while. Uncle believes that if he were to tell all the details about NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, then Naomi would be heartbroken. This is because afterwards in the novel, it is discovered that Naomi and her mother had a very close mother and daughter relationship.Another similar incident is when Obasan remains silent while Naomi asks questions Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËPlease tell me about motherÃ¢â¬â¢ [Naomi] would say as a child to ObasanÃ¢â¬ ¦ but she gave [Naomi] no answerÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (26). This quotation dem onstrates that Obasan did not give Naomi any answers about her mother because Naomi would be grief-stricken upon learning the truth. NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s mother is the one person she felt safe with and if she were to realize that her ultimate protector is no longer alive, she would feel threatened and alone in the world.It also illustrates that Obasan kept her word as NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"[mother] had requested that Stephen and [Naomi] be spared the truthÃ¢â¬ (259). This quotation illustrates NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s motherÃ¢â¬â¢s love and guardianship towards her children. Also from this quotation it is understood that Naomi and her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s bond is so powerful that her mother being overseas still knows that the truth must be kept from Naomi in order for her to continue living her childhood without trouble. All the adults in the Nakane family were completely determined to keep NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s innocence intact, which made them to keep the truth from her. Stephen and I are unconcerned wi th such worries and life for us is a quiet and pleasant holidayÃ¢â¬ this illustrates that Naomi is frequently left in the dark because the adults believe that she is too young to handle the upsetting truth (149). Consequently, Naomi lacks key facts and whenever she tries to comprehend an incident she gets tangled up by her lack of understanding and thus remains an innocent child. To proceed, Naomi as a young child believes in fairy tales and plays with dolls which advocate her feelings when she cannot find a way to express them on her own.As Naomi states in the novel, Ã¢â¬Å"Clearly we are the bear family in this strange house in the middle of the woods. I am the baby bearÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ it reveals that Naomi as a child is confused about the issues that upset her family as she tries to understand their problems using characters from stories that she has read (136). It is shown that Naomi channels her own feeling into her toys as she says Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the doll is quite happy and e xcited about the train tripÃ¢â¬ (124).In this excerpt, it is obvious that Naomi is talking about herself rather than the doll. It shows that Naomi is innocent as she does not know the complete truth and believes that she is just going for a ride on the train which excites her. Following that, after getting off the train, Naomi proclaims that her doll is lost as she asks Obasan Ã¢â¬Å"where is my doll? Ã¢â¬ (128). Since NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s mother gave her that doll, its absence can be associated with the separation she feels between herself and her mother, the ideal defender of her innocence.It is vivid that Naomi is an innocent child which is exemplified through her thoughts about fairies helping her Ã¢â¬Å"I am in a grade two reader full of fairies, sitting in the forest very still and waiting for one fairyÃ¢â¬ ¦ to come flyingÃ¢â¬ ¦ and lead me down to the moss-covered door on the forest that opens to the tunnel leading to the place where my mother and father are hidingÃ¢â¬ (164). This quotation illustrates NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s distress about the disturbing thoughts that come into her mind when she thinks about her parents also, she feels helpless at the hands of other powerful figures like the RCMP in Canada.Therefore, Naomi as a young child believes that her only hope is a mythical creature like a fairy that might help her locate her parents much like a child who believes in Santa ClauseÃ¢â¬â¢s existence. Naomi is too young to interpret the reality and the difficulties of her and her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s lives as they do not affect her much, proving that she is undoubtedly an innocent child. Lastly, Naomi is a helpless child who had to see the different side of the world too soon for her age.In the novel, Naomi declares that Ã¢â¬Å"Again and again the henÃ¢â¬â¢s beak strikes and the chick lies on its side on the floor, its neck twisted back, its wings, outstretched fingers. The hen lifts a scaly leg, the claws collapsing and clutching as it struts around th e cage, bayoneting the chicks darting past NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s feet, their wings outspread. Ã¢â¬ (63). NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s fate is represented by the chicks as she is a defenseless being, practically powerless against the Canadian governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s attacks on her family. She is a guiltless child being punished by the government for no legitimate reason.Later on in the Novel, NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s neighbor Old Man Gower who Ã¢â¬Å"carries her away, he tells [her] she must not tell [her] mother. Ã¢â¬ as she puts it (65). Exhibiting the fact that Naomi is a vulnerable subject of Old Man GowerÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual attacks. Also, Naomi was devastated as she could not seek the protection of her mother for she was ashamed of herself and also that Old Man Gower had asked her not to talk about anything to her mother. Therefore, she is an innocent child suffering in her own grief and confusion at a very young age.Subsequently, the reoccurring nightmare that Naomi has about the Ã¢â¬Å"three oriental woman t hat lay naked in the muddy roadÃ¢â¬ ¦ and several soldiersÃ¢â¬ ¦ [Who] appeared to be guarding those womenÃ¢â¬ ¦ prisoners Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ is crucial to understand the abuse she suffered at the hands of Old Man Gower (66). The women in her dream are defenseless against the armed men reflecting upon her own experience as a victim of her neighbor. In the novel, it is portrayed that Naomi is unprotected and vulnerable when exposed to matters that only adults should be aware of.All in all, NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s innocence is a significant feature in her childhood as the adults in the Nakane family shield Naomi with their resolute endurance. An examination of the adultsÃ¢â¬â¢ role in NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s life reveals that they are essential because they try their best to protect her from the unlighted side of the world. After analyzing NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement with her toys or fairy tales it is revealed that she is unclear with the events occurring around her and henceforth turns to her dolls or fairy tales for an explanation or a solution for her questions.NaomiÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery about abuse highlights that Naomi is a young child being exposed to something inappropriate as she has yet to develop a sense of right or wrong in the world. In Joy KogawaÃ¢â¬â¢s Novel, Obasan, Naomi is a naive child who is bewildered and agitated throughout the novel considering that she does not have experience of the life outside the protection of her parents. **** Works Cited Kogawa, Joy. Obasan. 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M4P 2Y3: Penguin Group, 1981. Print.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Evaluate two models of theories of memory. This essay will evaluate two models of theories of memory. Memory can be defined as the persistence of learning over time via the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Encoding is the process of categorizing incoming information through conscious effortful processing, rehearsal, or unconscious automatic processing. The storage process involves the retention of encoded information over time. Lastly, retrieval is the process of getting information out of memory. There are various types of memory. Sensory memory is the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. It also plays a vital role in filtering out useless information, enabling us to focus ourÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some information from the sensory store moves to the STM by paying attention to information, while some information from the STM moves to the LTM via constant rehearsal of that information. Once that piece of information is stored in the LTM, it is long-lasting - perhap s even for a lifetime if that certain piece of information is that strong. The difference in forgetting between the STM and LTM is that memory forgotten from the short term store is lost whereas forgotten memories in the LTM are still in the system but cannot be retrieved. The sensory, short-term, and long-term memory stores also differ from one another in regards to duration (how long information can be stored), capacity (how much information can be stored), and coding (in what form information can be stored). The sensory store decays rapidly, has unlimited capacity, and the information is picked up by our senses. Sensory memory includes iconic (visual), haptic (touch), and echoic (auditory) memories as well. STM lasts 15-30 seconds, is limited to 7 plus/minus 2 units, and is coded acousting. The information in STM is lost unless it is rehearsed via repetition. 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