Thursday, February 28, 2019

Education Timeline Essay

educational activity Timeline Antiria Jenkins HIS324 History of American learning Instructor timothy Kilgore November 12, 2012 http//prezi. com/vcesi_y4xome/history-of-american-education-timeline/ Education in the United States has faced great changes toward development in the past hundreds of years. At the beginning, during the Colonial Era, the principles of education were mainly establish on those already used by European nations at the time.However, the country began to slang its own approaches toward teachings given different social, political and religious pr modus operandiices (Rippa 9). 1635The initiatively Latin Grammar nurture (Boston Latin School) Founded on April 23, 1635, in Boston, mum, it is know as the front common instruct and oldest existing school in the United States. The Latin grammar curriculum was degestural for boys 8 to 15, based on European Schools in a Puritan bea. Schools were to prepare boys for college and the service of God.Protestantism beli eved that education was wanted so that individuals could interpret the bible. 1751American Academy founded by Ben Franklin The demand of skilled workers in the inwardness of the eighteenth century led Benjamin Franklin to start a unseasoned kind of secondary school, thus, the American Academy was schematic in Philadelphia. American juicy schools at last replaced Latin grammar schools. Curriculum was geared to prepare students for employment. Academies eventu eithery replaced the Latin Grammar Schools and some admitted Women. 783Introduction of Noah Websters Speller Noah Webster published the A well-formed Institute of the English language, also known as, the blue-back speller. This was the most widely circulated of the primeval American textbooks and like Websters American Dictionary it strived to establish a national identity as well as the United States linguistic and cultural independence of England. As the first popular American textbook, the opening of Noah Websters speller stands as a significant event in the history of American education. 817(April 15, 1817) Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of deaf and Dumb Persons The Connecticut Asylum at Hartford for the Instruction of indifferent(p) and Dumb Persons opens. It is the first permanent school for the deaf in the U. S. doubting Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc are the schools co-founders. In 1864, Thomas Gallaudets son, Edward miner Gallaudet, divine services to start Gallaudet University, the first college specifically for deaf students. 824First State-Supported School formal Originally named the Boston English Classical School and established in 1821, the school was renamed the English High School in 1824 and also, during that year, became the first-state supported coarse school. The adoption of the English High as a state-supported commonalty school is a significant event in the history of American education as it was, essentially, the first public school . 1855Abolition of Segregation of Schools in Massachusetts Following the case of Roberts v.Boston, the state of Massachusetts abolished segregation in their schools. The succeeder would be the first in a long battle perpetual nearly an entire century. This was the first police to oppose segregated schools in the United States and is, therefore, a significant event in the history of American education. 1856The First Kindergarten In the United States Margarethe Schurz founded the first kindergarten in Watertown, Wisconsin, in 1856. Her German-language kindergarten move Elizabeth Peabody, who opened the first American English-language kindergarten in Boston in 1860.The kindergarten was untold more influential in the United States and in the northern begin of Europe which encouraged the National Education Association to begin a kindergarten department in 1874, and later, teachers founded the International Kindergarten Union in 1892. 1896The Laboratory School of the University of Chicago (First Progressive Laboratory)John Dewey, the father of the progressive education, established the first laboratory school for testing the progressive educational method. This would lead to a popular trend in education adopted by schools during the first half of the twentieth century.Progressive education emphasizes cultivation of problem work and critical thinking skills through hands-on learning activities. 1905 Carnegie insane asylum for the packaging of Teaching Founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1905 and chartered in 1906 by an act of Congress, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is an independent policy and research center. The Foundation encouraged the adoption of a standard system for equating berth time (the amount of time spent in a class) to senior high school school credits which is still in use today. This system is known as the Carnegie Unit. 1939 The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (first called the Wechsler- Bellevue Intelligence Scale) T his scale was demonstrable by David Wechsler and is intended to measure human intelligence reflected in both(prenominal) verbal and performance abilities. It introduces the concept of the deviation IQ, which calculates IQ scores based on how far subjects scores differ (or deviate) from the average (mean) score of others who are the same age, rather than calculating them with the ratio (MA/CA multiplied by 100) system. Wechsler intelligence tests, particularly the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, are still widely used in U.S. schools to help identify students needing special education. 1944 The Servicemens modification spot of 1944 (GI Bill of Rights) Bill signed into law on June 22, 1944 by President Franklin Roosevelt during World War II. The GI Bill affords military veterans politics funding to pursue or continue educational goals following their service. The GI Bill not only compensates veterans for their service, but has also been responsible for the appendage of American colleges and universities. 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka On whitethorn 17, 1954, The U. S. Supreme court ruled in Brown v.Board of Education that let on schools did not provide equal education to students and therefore outlaw the segregation of schools nationwide with a ruling of (90) decision stated that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal and declared unconstitutional. 1958 Defense Education conduct of 1958 The Defense Education motion of 1958 was signed into law on September 2, 1958 by the United States government during the cold war in reaction to the successful launch of the Soviet satellite Sputnik. The Soviets scientific success motivated the U. S. government to fund the U.S. Office of Educations psychiatric hospital of scientifically and mathematically centered curriculum. The act contained ten titles designed to reform the nations schools. 1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 signed on July 2, 1964 by Pres ident Lyndon B. Johnson banned difference in all federally funded programmes and outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women. This law helped to further the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education as many an(prenominal) schools had continued segregation.The Civil Rights Act of 1964 financially, cut-off, institutions, such as public schools, which promoted discrimination of any and all types and gave leverage to the movement. 1965 The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was passed on April 9, 1965 s a part of the War on Poverty. It emphasizes equal access to education and establishes high standards and accountability as well as provides federal funds to help low-income students, which results in the initiation of educational programs such as Title I and bilingual education. 965 The Higher Education Act The Higher Education Act was signed on November 8, 1965 to strengthen the educational resources of colleges and universities and to provide financial service for students in postsecondary and higher education. It increased federal money given to universities, created scholarships, gave low-interest loans for students, and established a National Teachers Corps. 1965 Project Head mark The Head Start program started in the spend of 1965 as an eight week summer program for children from low-income communities going into public school in the fall (Styfco and Zigler, 2003).The program provided preschool classes, medical care, dental care, and mental health services (Kagan, 2002). 1975Education for All disable Children Act now known as The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ( idea) requires public schools to make available to all eligible children with disabilities a free take away public education in the least restrictive environment let to their individual inescapably and requires public school systems to develop appropriate di stinguish Education Programs (IEPs) for each child which will reflect the individualized needs of each student. 002 The No Child Left Behind Act On January 8, 2002, NCLB was signed into law. NCLB supports standards-based education reform based on the premise that displace high standards and establishing measurable goals can improve individual outcomes in education. The Act requires states to develop assessments in basic skills. States must give these assessments to all students at select grade levels in order to receive federal school funding. All students are required to meet the standards establish by NCLB at the accountability of educators. 2004 H. R. 350, The Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act (IDEA 2004) reauthorizes and modifies IDEA. Changes, which take effect on July 1, 2005, include modifications in the IEP process and procedural safeguards, increased authority for school force in special education placement decisions, and alignment of IDEA with the No Child L eft Behind Act. The 2004 reauthorization also requires school districts to use the reply to Intervention (RTI) approach as a means for the early recognition of students at risk for specific learning disabilities.RTI provides a three-tiered model for screening, monitoring, and providing change magnitude degrees of intervention using research-based instruction with the overall goal of reducing the need for special education services (Re-authorization, 2004). The history of education has been influenced multiple multiplication over the past years. In some shape, form, or fashion, the many changes bring in affected many lives, especially those with disabilities.Going from segregation to desegregation, women involvement in education and fighting for equal education of those individuals with disabilities has not only marked historical events but has brought togetherness among all races and genders. Without these historical events in shaping education, the military personnel would be at a standstill. References Dewey, John. 1938 (1963). Experience and Education. New York Collier Books Kagan, J. (2002). say-so and education Civil rights, expert-advocates, and parent politics in Head Start, 1964-1980.Teachers College Record, 104(3), 516-562. Re-authorization of the IDEA 2004. Retrieved November 5, 2012 from http//www. nj. gov/education/specialed/idea/reauth/ Rippa, Alexander. Education in a Free Society. ordinal Edition. New York Longman, 1997. 3-107. Print. Styfco, S. , & deoxyadenosine monophosphate Zigler, E. (2003). Early Childhood Programs for a New Century. Reynolds, A. , & Wang, M. (Eds. ) The federal commitment to preschool education Lessons from and for Head Start (pp. 3-33). Washington, D. C. Child well-being League of America, Inc.

Review of Kelly and Kulman’s Article Kid Power

The article elect for review is Kid Power by Katy Kelly and Linda Kulman, U. S. News World Report. It was stick on on September 5, 2004. The article discusses the psychology and marketing that is accomplished by major companies. Advertising companies spend over $15 cardinal a socio-economic class telling kids what is hot and what they need to buy. Kids are surrounded with guardedly researched mess mount ups and marketing telling them what to do.The parenting style has become more flexible and little authoritarian in the last 25 years. All this tiny consumers in United States go forth recognize logos at the age of 18 months and by 2 children will ask products by brand name. It should be noned that a child will watch 40,000 commercials every year and some parents reported that the babys first words was not mama or dada but Coke. United States with provided 4. 5 percent of the population buys 45 percent of the global playact production.American kids will get an average of 70 n ew toys a year. Kids will influence the family decision buying power of parent by 670 billion worth of purchases, small items such as which snacks to buy and large items as a SUV for the family trips with the kids. If we compare the military budget in United States is 418 billion, practically smaller than the kids buying power. There is a strong opposition to this onset of advertising by many fronts.That is why marketers count on kids to chaw parents to the point of purchase. The American Psychological Association added its voice to that of the American honorary society of Pediatrics is reporting that advertising is directed toward children and is deceptive and exploits children under age 8. Also, the APA says that before the age of 4 or 5, kids can not divulge between a show and a commercial. In the future virtually likely we will see legislation to curve the limit on advertising to children.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Epistles Of The French Revolution English Literature Essay

It is with sorrow that I pronounce the fatal fair play Louis ought to die instead than a speed of light thousand virtuous citizens Louis mustiness drop dead that the state may populate A Maximilien Francois Robespierre Justice has its choler, my cleric Bishop, and the wrath of justness is an component of advancement. Whatever else may be verbalise of it, the G allic conversion was the greatest measure attendward by orbit since the coming of Christ. It was unfinished, I agree, but still it was sublime. It released the untapped springs of society it slow Black mares, appeased, tranquilized, enlightened, and post fluxing through the populace the tides of civilisation. It was inviolable. The Gallic gyration was the anointment of humanity. Victor Hugo Liberty, equality, fraternity, or decease the last, much the easiest to confer, O Guillotine Charles two ( A Tale of Two Cities )Helen Maria Williams was a big(a) female person in front of her clip. While compo pala ver letters place to England during the Gallic whirling, the convulsion and policy-making upheaval somewhat her closely mimicked the convulsion she was sing in person. An friendless amongst her friends, Williams observations and devastation are evident in her Letterss Written in France, in the Summer of 1790, a aggregation of her Hagiographas to friends and household still in England. As a self-aggrandizing female efficaciously on the front lines of war, Williams was able to capture the world of the alteration and record her observations in Letters, the accept composing medium of adult females. romance was an rational motion which began around the latter half of the eighteenth century and is was defined largely by alteration. Most humanistic disciplines, deal music, poesy, literature, and even political relations began to bear in reception to the disruptive societal clime seen in France during the Revolution. romance emphasized emotion, imaginativeness, and originality, wh ich was in blunt contrast to the scientific discipline, state and severalize defined by the Age of Enlightenment which came subsequently the Revolution. love story, as contradictory to Enlightenment, concentrated more on the single author or yeasty person themselves, as opposed to the province or ground. Both visual humanistic disciplines and literature, from the Romanticism motion, elevated and famed Nature as a wild Being, instead than as something that can easy be explained ground or survey. The Romanticism motion in literature evolved in response to the Gallic Revolution and instead than concentrate on ground and primer to explicate nature and adult male, Romanticism foc implement more on emotions and feelings to explicate and portray them. The poesy and Letters of Helen Maria Williams espouse the Romanticism ideals as they portend the hereafter of feminism and adult females who rattling their lives for themselves.Helen Maria Williams straight confronted the ideals o f the Revolution. Williams had relocated to capital of France in 1792, and she was imprisoned for a nobble clip in the Bastille during the Reign of Terror. Both her clip in prison, and the atrociousnesss she witnessed during the Revolution, personally influenced her and straight influenced the tone of much of her pop off. While captive, Williams wrote many of her verse forms, like Sonnet to the Curlew , which trade with freedom and yearning. In the Curlew verse form, Williams identifies with a curlew and wants she could be every bit free as he is upon the air current. As Williams faced the Revolution of France, she began to confront a revolution of her ain that was remindful of the ideals of both Romanticism and Feminism.During her early old ages in France, Williams began a blood with John Hurford Stone, a married Englishman and extremist militant. Though Stone separate in 1794, it is ill-defined whether Williams and Stone of all time married and their kindred caused a di rt in England which resulted in Williams being personally attacked by the British imperativeness. Before Williams foremost visited France in 1790, she had been celebrated as a all right, effeminate poet. After cosmosally placing with the Revolution, Williams was denounced as a unashamed adult female who had developed debased political and sexual propensities. She had compel a adult female who had betrayed both her state and her sex ( Blakemore 676 ) . In a Gentleman s Magazine, a referee of her Letterss from France said of Williams s he has debased her sex, her bosom, her feelings, her endowments in entering such a wander of horror and villainousness and make bolding to diss a regular government and a happy people i.e. , the English with such inside informations, whose consequence, we have got her to demo has yet been productive of one individual good ( Adams 114 ) .Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, referred to Williams as a scribbling slattern in his Correspondence an d in Anti-Jacobin Review and Magazine, Williams was visualised as Lechery in a emanation of the Seven Deadly Sins. The magazine publisher went so far as to province, Williams has an inveterate hatred of all bing constitutions, by an earnest desire to advance their devastation, and by a disdain of truth, decency, and decorousness, which spring the general features of a female head infected with the toxicant of country ( Blakemore 676 ) .Williams was vilified by the imperativenesss, both at place and abroad, and it is apprehensible that she would seek a more hospitable venue to name place. For Williams, that welcoming topographic mind was a state in the throes of civil war.In June 1794, Williams and Stone fled to Switzerland after a jurisprudence was passed by Maximilien de Robespierre necessitating all aristocracy and aliens leave Paris under punishment of jurisprudence. Williams and Stone remained in Switzerland for 6 months, and she wrote Tour in Switzerland which dealt wit h subjects including political relations, history, and nature. In response to the effects of the revolution, Williams said that she appreciated what the Revolution had done for adult females s rights, but she openly condemned the force necessary to accomplish it. In her letters, Williams response to the Revolution varies, frequently comparing the feminine civilization of the Revolution with the Antient authorities of France and she condemns the force much as she had during the American Revolution.aThe executioner held up the hemorrhage caput, and the guards cried Vive La republique Long live the democracy Some dipped their hankies in the blood-but the greater figure, chilled with horror at what had passed, desired the commanding officer would take them immediately from the topographic repoint. The tomentum was sold in separate braids at the pes of the scaffold ( 100 ) .After depicting the scene of King Louis XVI s decease by closure by compartment, Williams describes the w ake in an about sluggishness and calm voice, as though she had become asleep to the force of the RevolutionaThe devastation of the monarchy in France on the 10th of August-the horrors of the slaughter of the 2d of September, and so the decease of the male monarch, eventually alienated the heads of Englishmans from the Gallic revolution rendered popular a war, which otherwise no curate would hold dared to set about disgusted all wise, and shocked all human work forces and left to us, and all who had espoused the cause, no hope but that Heaven, which knows how to convey good out of immorality, would watch over an even so interesting to the public assistance to mankind as the Gallic revolution nor suffer the senselessness and frailty of the agents concerned in it, to botch the greatest and noblest endeavor of all time undertaken by a state ( 100 ) .Laetitia Matilda Hawkins, a coetaneous of Williams, wrote a response to each of Williams letters warning Williams for her positions on the RevolutionHawkins s Letters conveys a sense of pressing crisis for her, the Revolution is a foreign invasion endangering English life and English womanhood-a Revolution move the natural order upside down. She bases her response to Williams s Letterss on a reading of the first two series ( in the Scholars Facsimiles & A Reprints edition, 11.1-223 12.1-206 ) , in which Williams celebrates the function of adult females in the Revolution every bit good as their topographic point in the universe ( 11.27-8 ) ( Blakemore 677 ) .Although Williams seemed to appreciate what the Revolutionary civilization did for adult females, she did non O.K. of the force used to accomplish the alteration. Williams was going a newer, more self-asserting and unchained adult female than she was earlier. In the old ages predating the Gallic Revolution, a patriarchal political orientation stressing proper female behaviour, the natural domestic function of adult female, and her biddable subordinat ion to her hubby ( underscored in assorted scriptural texts ) had been in topographic point for centuries ( Blakemore 673 ) .After sing societal turbulence, imprisonment, expatriate from her select fatherland, and the loss of some of her closest friends, Williams emerged as a adult female who was non afraid to populate her life her ain mood.In Paris, as in London, Williams was introduced to and hosted many outstanding intellectuals and literary figures in her salon, such as doubting Thomas Paine and Mary Wollstonecraft. Williams salon rapidly became a meeting topographic point for outstanding Girondins, but as the Jacobins gained power, many of her friends were arrested and executed. Williams wrote in a manner acceptable for adult females s Hagiographas, the epistolary. Despite the controversial content of her Letters, Williams Hagiographas authentic by and large positive reappraisals from many English magazines. What negative reply her authorship received, was in response to the manner and vocabulary she chose because she would frequently utilize Gallic colloquialisms and spellings which alienated many of her English readers.Williams lost about everything she held dear(p) during the Gallic Revolution. She had lost her fatherland, her freedom-for a clip, her friends, but she refused to lose herself. Because of Williams Letterss, readers have a adult female s first-hand history of the political and societal turbulence seen during the Revolution. The singularity of the history contained within her Letters has assured Williams a topographic point in womens rightist survey, irrespective if that was her original purpose. Williams personifies all the ideals of Romanticism within herself and her writings-emotional entreaty to trepidation, horror and awe-and the sublimity of wild nature.

Jim Poss Case Study Analysis

The main growth strategy that Jim counted on really was based over the potential future increase in demands for clean and cost cutting energy solutions. The newspaper publisher reminded him that as energy prices will soar. Logistics for cost saving could be the germ of birth of a new and ever growing sector, and and that if he got on it early on (as he did), This could prove to be a paying(a) idea. BigBelly wasnt only a device for saving Money. t couldve been marketed for the green-image portrayed by its presence in public spaces and how this could help improve the eco-friendly image of the companies that uses them. in the early 2000s large corporation were already massively funding versatile Corporate social ResponsibilityCSR projects, mainly for their public image and thus profit, this wouldve been an holy man marketing niche as Devices such as Jims serves those exact needs, Yes I would have interpreted the order.Jims decision to accept the order from the Ski rectify was a s mart one, risky but smart, this was a truly colossal and maybe irreplaceable opportunity,lets put it that way the circumstance that a business(in trouble) was will to invest in a device (electric or not) without even world able to test it beforehand is an accomplishment on its own, but the fact that its developer wasnt even certainly how to actually build it, was an even greater one, sure Jim had constructed and sold a prototype before, but as long as Vail is concerned the devices theyre Purchasing (3 at first) didnt even exist yet.Finally I conceptualise that if it wasnt for the deadline and by being under time constrain, Jim and his team would have taken much longer to figure out the ins-&-outs of the manufacturing process of BigBelly, and thus perhaps lose future opportunities

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Satire in Huck Finn

Huckleberry Finn Bannedor non? Picture a river non just any kind of river, the disseminated multiple sclerosis River. Now picture yourself on a raft, but youre not alone. Therere two other people with you, known as Huckleberry Finn and Jim. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark orthodontic braces is known widely as a satiric novel, but due to the satirical techniques Twain exercisings all passim the go for has caused it to become controversial on whether it should or should not be banned.Although Twain may appear to be racist in Huckleberry Finn, he actually wrote the book during the Reconstruction Era but based the book during Pre-Civil War to show the good ole times when the white southerners had slaves. Because Twain uses so many satirical techniques to help show readers that slavery is horrible, therefore Adventures of Huckleberry Finn should not be banned. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was and still is considered a satirical novel because of its use of caricature, broad side, irony, and mixer satire (maybe even a little of parody).Mark Twain uses satire to sustain his point on slavery. And in order to accomplish that, he has to use all sorts of satirical techniques. He uses broadside to show the racism in the south, There isnt any book out there in the world that is known that Mark Twain doesnt use satire. In Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck tries to decide whether he should commit a sin to skid back a captured slave, and when he sees that he wants to steal Jim back, he tear up the note and says, All right, then, Ill go to h___. 208). This is satirical because Twain is using irony to show that Huck thinks he is doing something horrible when he is actually doing a good deed. This is an example of a good satirical technique used in the book. However, there are plenty reasons wherefore many schools have banned the book. For example, Twain uses broadside a galvanic pile causing libraries and schools to think of it as being racist making them censor the book.

Importance Of Energy Efficiency In Buildings Environmental Sciences Essay

The World Business Council for sustainable development ( WBCSD ) identifies facial expressions as iodin of the chief firmaments where megatrends are needed to exchange the manner is aptitude used. The International slide fastener Agency ( IEA ) estimates that current tendencies in null demand for constructions will excite nearly half of competency supply investings till 2030.The fuel crises in 1972-73 generated worldwide hears to conserve fossil fuel and inquiry for the alternate beginnings of zippo. The practice session of cogency in buildings has increase in recent old ages due to the turning demand for warm and chilling in constructions. Though revealments have been made towards accomplishing readiness capability in edifices, nevertheless(prenominal), there is a demand for a more than hold back attack. I Buildings are responsible for at least 40-50 % of power exercise in most states. The absolute figure is lifting fast, as building roars, oddly in dev eloped states such as China, UAE and India. It is indispensable to move now, because edifices put forward do a major part to undertaking clime alteration. two Today in modern edifices Heating, Lighting, Ventilation and Air-conditioning systems are required to be more energy streamlined while adhering to an ever-increasing demand for better indoor(a) air quality and overt presentation. Researchers believe that it is possible to obtain approach eggs of around 30 % through the usage of new and better project techniques and pricks. Most of these nest eggs are based on an incorporate system design attack.The focal point of Architectural linguistic rule has remained object devising and small attending is being paid to analysing the public presentation of the edifice. Though many tools are available to entree the energy public presentation of edifices, nevertheless, there usage has remained really limited.2.1.1 Importance of Energy Efficiency in BuildingsIntegrating energy effici ent design features into edifices has arrest a top precedence in recent old ages. Because energy-efficient edifices slue knock down both resource depletion and the inauspicious environmental impacts of pollution generated by energy work, it is frequently considered to be the basis of sustainable design. Low energy edifice design is non merely the consequence of using one or more stray engineerings. Rather, requires protagonism and action on the portion of the design squad passim the full undertaking development procedure. The whole-building attack is easy worth the trim and attempt, as it usher out relieve 30 % or more in energy costs over a conventional edifice design. Indeed, one of the cardinal attacks for energy efficient design is to put in the edifice s signifier and enclosure ( e.g. , Windowss, walls ) so that the warming, chilling, and illuming tonss are reduced, and in bend, smaller, less dearly-won warming, ventilating, and air conditioning systems are needed.In b lueprinting energy efficient edifices, it is of import to appreciate that the underlying intent of the edifice is neither to salvage nor utilize energy. Rather, the edifice is at that place to function the residents and their activities. An apprehension of edifice tenancy and activities can take to constructing designs that non merely salvage energy and cut down costs, but as well better resident comfort and employment public presentation. As such, low-energy edifice design is a critical agent of sustainable, green & A energy efficient design.The energy efficient design procedure begins when the residents demands are assessed and a undertaking budget is established. The proposed edifice is conservatively sited and its programmed infinites are carefully arranged to cut down energy usage for warming, chilling, and illuming. Its warming and chilling tonss are minimized by planing standard edifice elements windows, walls, and roofs so that they control, collect, and store the Sun s energy to optimal advantage. These passive solar design schemes besides require that peculiar attending be paid to constructing orientation and glazing. Take together, they form the footing of integrated, whole edifice design. Finally, by integrating edifice incorporate photovoltaics into the installation, some conventional edifice envelope stuffs can be replaced by energy bring forthing engineerings. For illustration, photovoltaics can be integrated into window, wall, or roof assemblies, and spandrel glass, fanlights, and roof become both portion of the edifice tegument and a beginning of precedent coevals.2.1.2 Scope of Energy Efficiency in PakistanPakistan faces really serious energy jobs particularly for the last one decennary. Its energy resources base is limited. Its domestic production will non maintain gait with the rise in demand. Energy empyrean experts estimate that by the mid of 2010, the demand of electricity would be about 22,000 megawatts. This figure points at the built-in shortfall of about 3,000 megawatts even if the installed force performs the best. During the extremum season, this deficit could make anyplace from 4,000 to 6,000 megawatts. Pakistan produces electricity with three beginnings i.e. hydroelectric ( 6,463 megawatts, 33 % ) , thermic ( 12,580 megawatts, 65 % ) and atomic ( 462 megawatts, 2 % ) . Because of the H2O deficit in winter, the potency of hydroelectric powers falls dramatically. Load direction plan is traveling on during the whole twelvemonth the job has intensified in the last twosome of old ages.Besides the economic and fiscal attempt associated with the enlargement of the electricity sector, there is a demand to develop a guideline for the maximal use of the energy resources we have. As the edifice sector including Industries, Commercial & As Office Buildings, Domestic edifices, devour 76 % electricity the edifices should be addressed decently sing the energy efficiency. National edifice codifications that i nclude energy efficiency considerations can be an effectual tool to guarantee the edifices efficiency for minimal energy uptake.2.2 Focus ProblemIn Pakistan increased population, industrial enterprise and moneymaking(prenominal) activities has generated an energy demand. A However, a critical rating would peril that most of the current edifices are non designed maintaining in position the local climatic conditions. Excessive usage of concrete and glass, high degrees of light and voiceless trust on infinite conditioning equipment are a harsh characteristic of our edifices. These edifices need excess energy to be made well-situated for their residents. So there is a demand to turn to the energy issues relate to these edifices at their conceptual phase.2.3 Area of FocusIn Pakistan a broad grasp of commercial / attitude edifices, get downing from a individual floor construction to high rise multi floor edifices. Sing the range of work, it is non possible to penetrate out the research canvas for all edifice types. The current research will be focused to research the energy issues merely in high rise office edifices.2.4 AimsThe chief aim of the research is to get word into the undermentioned schemes To look into which edifice constituents and systems are responsible for energy ingestion in high rise office edifices.To place how much energy is consumed in such edifices.To place tools that may used for the appraisal of energy public presentation in edifices.2.5 Research MethodologyMethodology or usage of distinct methods is needed to accomplish the chief aim of research. A wide scope of information was needed. Much of this was done from assorted books, literature, and research repapers. Some tump over was encountered in the hunt of suited energy imitating tool for the intent of energy simulation of the selected guinea pig surveies. Finally eQuest was selected for energy simulation tool as it is really effectual for constructing energy simulation with friendly graphical drug user interface. A elaborate survey is carried out with the aid of the user s manual to understand the bundle before its application on the eccentric surveies.An country in Lahore is identified for the choice of instance surveies. Two office edifices were selected on the footing of research aims. A field study was besides carried out to analyze the selected countries of the metropolis of LahoreThe energy simulation procedure requires a informations aggregation from all related advisers of the selected edifices. Before the choice of a instance survey it was really of import that all concerned informations required for the package eQuest should be available from the related advisers.

Monday, February 25, 2019

How does Iago manipulate Othello Essay

Perfect people do not inhabit in this world of temptations, failures, and suffering. In fact, e really person has cleannesses, and there is ever so a possibility that some star leave use those feeble points against that man. Shakespe ars play Othello shows an example of how one can control others exploiting their failinges and the consequences of such actions. The mention of Iago, the antagonist in the tragedy Othello, instigates chaos, deception, and gross manipulation. He is the center of t footstep up ensemble the evil events in the play. He manages to completely deceive e reallyone by displaying an aboveboard facade. Thus he is up to(p) to instill deposit in enti swan those around him. Since no one sees him for the evil and deceiving man that he really is, he manages to manipulate everyone. He exerts control and power over others in order of battle to fulfill his goals of destroying Cassio and completely demeaning Othello and ruining his reputation.Roderigos arouse dness to Desdemona, his lounge aboutishness, and bank disposition help Iago to succeed in his evil plan. other object of manipulation is Cassio whose love for women and wine as well as his concerns of reputation makes him a victim of Iagos brutal intentions. The Moor, the cause of Iagos revenge, is described as someone who heavily relies on the advice of others which becomes used against him by his friend. Also he becomes caught in Iagos web because of his disability to get a commission with jealousy put in his ear. Othello jumps speedyly into conclusions and finally kills Desdemona and himself that satisfies Iagos disposition of revenge. Therefore, Iago is able to manipulate Roderigo, Cassio, and Othello by exploding their weaknesses. existence a blind fool and maintaining hopeless love for Desdemona, a woman of his dream, Roderigo is hurt by Iago who uses his weak spots to fulfill the revenge. Iago k instantlys of Roderigos weakness of being totally employ to Desdemona and of his obsession of winning her back, so he exploits it well. With promises of reunification with Desdemona, Iago twists Roderigos weakness to his advantage since he needs money and wants his hands to be clean. Iago is the one who manipulates his feelings toward Desdemona and motivates his actions. First Iago, in the moment of Roderigos despair, convinces him that Desdemonas infatuation go out end as soon as shell get bored sexually with Othello, so there will be a new way to get closer to her. Later he makes Roderigo believe that she has an af dependable with Cassio thatprovides Roderigo with fillip to bring d prefer in and then kill Michael.Iago also puts in his dot that Othello and Desdemona are going to Mauritania and he will not be able to win her back, further if Cassio dies then they will have to stay in Cyprus. Roderigo, being a nave trusting fool, believes every Iagos word. In his turn Iago despises Roderigo, referring to him as to a faithful to his master dog by sayi ng that he is poor trash of Venice, whom I leash for his quick hunting. Roderigos disability to use his brain is showed in his madness of not understanding that Iago uses himas a source of money. However, even when he gets to shadowy Iago in cheating on him, the master of evil finds the way out and Roderigo is left in fools again. Roderigos trusting nature and self-pitying does not forgo him to take control over things by himself, so he sets his hopes on Iago who manipulates him playing on his weaknesses in order to fulfill his desire of revenge.Cassio with his trusty reputation, love for women and wine being his real weakness is another reputation that is exploited by Iago. Iago hates Michael since he was chosen over Iago to become a lieutenant even though Cassio is, according to Iago, an inferior soldier. Since Iago is aware of Michaels very poor and unhappy brains for drinking. On the first step of destroying him Iago gets Cassiol to drink too much of wine, one of his main w eaknesses, eon on duty, challenging his loyalty to Othello and causes him to brawl with Roderigo. When Othello discovers the drunken Cassio, he dismisses him. This is exactly what Iago had envisioned. The necrosis of Michael due to his dismissal and loss of rank is the fulfillment of one of Iagos major goals. On the next step honest man, as he is called by Cassio, maintains the facade of fake sincerity and loyalty to Michael while at the same age deceiving and plotting his destruction.Ironically, Cassio seeks Iagos advice on how to regain Othellos trust and favor while Iago is actually the source of his problem with Othello, Iago gives Michael advice for his own evil purposes. He advises Cassio to talk to Desdemona about influencing Othello. Unfortunately, this advice is a form of manipulating, since Iago abruptly knows that Michael is a fellow almost damned in a fair wife. Also by begging, or bowing down to a woman, which was not to be done in those times, Cassio shows more t han of a weakness. Although Michael is sightedness Desdemona to talk about his position and reputation, Iago hints hissuspicious of Cassio and Desdemonas affair to Othello creating an gratify in him. Also Iago becomes a great friend of Michael who even doesnt allow to himself to get to know more about the handkerchief attached by Iago to him. His trusting nature is completely under the power of Iago who provides a support for him. Therefore, Iago takes control over Cassio and his weaknesses, but Michael, blinded by Iagos outside friendly nature, does not realize that.Iagos poison pours on to Othellos mind and makes him to be manipulated by the enemy. Iago, when makes his plan saysThe Moor is of a free and open-nature,That thinks men honest that but seem to be so,And will as tenderly be led by th liftAs asses are (act 1, scene 3)Othello heavily relies on the opinions of others, as he did when choosing the lieutenant to be Cassio, not Iago. Also the Moor puts all his trust in Iago during times of war and during Othellos marriage to Desdemona. This wasnt very bright of Othello. His trusting nature makes him vulnerable. His involvement with Desdemona translates into a deeper trust with heart. Being older than she is, Othello has fears that she will find a younger man who is more attractive than Othello. This makes him open to Iagos plan. As a result when Iago creates rumors of Desdemonas involvement with Cassio, Othello, being already insecure with himself falls deep into Iagos trap. Besides the fact that he is older than his wife, Othello also has insecurities about his race. He is a black man living among white men who are sometimes make judgments about his race and how it affects his work. In addition, to his fears, Othello has passionate nature does not allow him to think over what he hears or if it is true, but let his jealousy take over his actions. Othellos emotions begin to fester from jealously to anger.He has never been heart broken before and now al l his emotions of melancholyare running through his mind. How shall I eat up him, Iago? Already Othello had sunken in everything Iago had said. Not thinking straight and allow his emotions run untamed, he can only think of death as a way to resolve everything. He jumps very fast into conclusions that die hard to a downfall. Iago poisons Othellos mind with lies about love, Desdemona, and his trusted lieutenant, Cassio and causes him to destroy them both. Iago realizes that by causing Othello to destroy both Desdemona and Cassio Othello will at the same time destroy himself and his reputation. Being under pressure of Iago who controls him exploiting his weaknesses Othello ruins himself and people around him.Exploiting the major weaknesses of Roderigo, Cassio, and Othello, Iago is able to control and hurt them. He moves his friends as if they were chessmen. He uses their single aspirations and passions to motivate them to whatever devious plan he desires. However, in individually case Iago doesnt have to push very hard because his suggested actions either seem harmless resolutions to each characters woes or take advantage of character flaws. Because he does not have to push very hard, he is able to maintain an air of apathy while promoting his supreme malevolent goals I am not what I am. In Roderigos case Iago successfully manipulates him using his weak personality and passionate love to Desdemona for his own purposes. Cassios love for women and his weakness to wine is what helps Iago in controlling him. Othello also is caught by Iago in his web of lie since his trusting and passionate nature, insecurity in him makes him vulnerable to Iago. Shakespeare shows the consequences of being trustful and nave. A person should think of what is right and wrong, but not rely on the advices of others as Roderigo, Cassio, and Othello did. One must have his own headland on the shoulders, and should live using his mind and consciousness in order to avoid the situation o f being under somebodys control.

Knowing Your Audience Paper and Communication Release Essay

On August 5, 2010 thirty-three players were trapped approximately 300 meters underground with contain food, water, and oxygen due to a Coppermine that collapsed in Chile. It was not known at first if there were each survivors. This story gathered audiences solely every come out the world as media interest came to life when a rescue workers drill emerged at the surface with a note devoted to it The 33 of us are OK in the refuge (Volk, 2011). nearly two months after the collapse sealed the mine, a rescue fixing was finally completed for the miners. To everyvirtuosos amazement all thirty-three miners were reclaimed (Yang, 2010). When this tragedy took place, the confederation had to take care in how the media relied on their findings. The immediate families of the workers need to be notified first, and then the other employees, and then a media issuance should be done professionally with truthful and accurate information.No one is prepared for this type of situation. col loquy must be handled carefully and thoughtfully especially to the families of the miners and the miners themselves. When a company is communicating with the families, the potential needs depart require details about the accident that took place with their relatives while at work (Tennyson & Ray, 2008). They get out need to know the exact time and place the incident took place, who is trapped in the mine, and what rescue mea for certains are universe taken. They impart need to be regularly updated as to the developments of the rescue process. Above all, they give need to be as legitimated that all accomplishable procedures are being taken to ensure that their loved ones are recovered safe and sound.Communication with the employees is going to require concise information and should be done formally. They go out need a quick update of the accident that should include what the company is doing to rescue their coworkers. They are going to need to be reassured that any other mines are not at risk of collapsingwhen they resume operative (Bajak, 2010). Identifying your audience is one action that is needed before any dialogue is done (Tennyson & Ray, 2005). Once you have identified your audience than you can number your communication plan around it. After you give your message, you should make sure your audience has an opportunity to ask questions and know who or where to go if they pacify need more information.DRAFT COMMUNICATIONSTo the families through the media. A crisis has occurred at the San Jose Mine. The mine has suffered a cave in on August 5th, release 33 workers trapped approximately 300 meters below the surface. Rescue trading operations have started and forget continue under the supervision of the Chilean government. several(prenominal) drills began to bore holes toward locations where rescuers thought the miners might be found but at this time have not established where they are precisely (Fiscor, 2010). Families are encouraged to be patie nt as these rescue operations are expected to take some time. Updates will be given as new developments arise. Once the workers are located, plans are current to make sure they get down food, water, and medicine while they wait to be rescued. All families are encouraged to take heart as we are taking all necessary precautions to makes sure all the miners are rescued safely. All families will be allowed to see their loved ones as soon as they receive medical treatment.Please fall into place the number below for more information. This force will be open 24 hours a day. To the employees at an employee meeting. You whitethorn already be aware of the crisis facing our company. The San Jose mine collapsed and trapped 33 employees approximately 300 meters below the surface. The rescue operations are underway to rescue all workers safely. I want to assure you that we are doing everything practical to find and make sure that food, water, and medicine are available to the workers and tha t we will be working day and night until they are safe from harm.I want to inform you all that we are having all mines thoroughly analyse to ensure they are safe before you resume work. We will be updating you on all the developments of the rescue operation and ask that you, please stay calm and if you have any questions or concerns, please contact your managers. Different audiences will need to be communicated in the best possible manner. What is right for one audience may not be purify for anotheraudience.ReferencesVolk, S. S. (2011). Refusing to hear Press coverage of the Chilean miners. NACLA Report on the Americas, 44(4), 54-56, 44. Retrieved from http// Yang, J. (2010, Oct 10). Hope surfaces in Chile. Toronto Star Retrieved from http// Tennyson, P. A., & Ray, K. (2005). Reaching todays utility program audiences Why there is no such thing as the public public. American Wat er Works Association. Journal, 97(1), 49-51. Retrieved from http// Bajak, F. (2010, Oct 14). As Chile celebrates mines future in question. Spartanburg Herald Journal, pp. n/a. Retrieved from http// Fiscor, S. (2010). Rescuers work to free Chilean miners. Engineering and Mining Journal, 211(8), 24-24, 26. Retrieved from http//

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Louis Pojman’s We Don’t Deserve What We Earn Essay

Merit and desert are two terms that are ceaselessly in opposition to one another. While merit measures value in terms of victory or failures, desert presupposes that value is not just now measured in terms of success or failure except excessively the intentions must be assessed. Desert asseses whether or not one had good or bad intentions, whether or not one was prudent for the success or failure.While it is tempting to set on issues with regards to their value in terms of the intentions of doing them as well as the success or failure of the object to meet our specific demands, I do believe that we merit is the best way of making a last we deserve what we earn. Athlete who has been training for long hours everyday deserves to evolve a race because of his attempt to train, and not marely because he is t every last(predicate) or has almost long strides. Merit presumes that a person deserves something provided that he has some qualities.This is in contrast to desert which ass umes a person to deserve something given that he attempts or does something. The criterion for deciding whether we deserve what we earn may be either through merit or desert, but one position is that we generally deserve what we earn. The society itself is full of pointers to the fact that we get what we aphorism. To begin with, the laws governing our actions in the society show a justice. The excogitation of justice is found in most cultures and religious institutions.An ancient Grecian poet, Simonides, define justice as giving each person his receivable an stem which is unequivocal in the ancient Greek laws which also defined justice as giving the people what they merited. This idea of justice is also evident in most religions. The concept of the final judgment through on the basis of ones goodness or badness cuts across all religions in the Hindu scriptures the notion of reward got after reincarnation is portray as being proportional to the persons deeds.This same idea is also exemplified in the Quran and explicit in the Hebrew and Christian bibles. The bible for example states that what a person sows such shall he reap. In the current world affairs, we sess look at the US option as one indicator of the criteria by which the society measures its values. We can decide to look at Obama as deserving the win from two perspective, from a meritorious point of view or from a desert establish point of view.If we look at it from a merit-based point of view, then we can say that Obama deserved the win because he planned well, mounted a successful campaign machinery and was successful in convincing the young people, many an(prenominal) of whom voted for him. On the other hand, we can decide to say that Obama deserved to win because he represented a minority community which has been oppressed and so deserved to win the election on this ground.ReferencePojman, L. Merit wherefore do we value it. Journal of Social Philosophy. New York. Vol 3083-102.


Securities Ex limiting military mission is the highest authority which administers and monitors the size up of U. S Listed Companies at NYSE, NASDAQ and Dow Zones. All U. S. Listed Companies which get traded at U. S. bourses, cod to comply with the FASB rules and practice GAAP standards of account. Non- complaisance to whatever of the auditing rules prescribed by GAAP would be bad viewed. U. S. federal official Government works in the interest of worldly concern investors and it expects altogether in e precise public companies to work in a transp bent method by disclosing fair transactions in one-year monetary statements of all public companies.Particularly, with the collapse of Enron, which is the worlds largest corporation, which floor the entire unified world, with the clean opinion of friendships auditor. , Arthur Anderson. The violence present is more(prenominal) on auditing committees and board of directors of the compevery who must(prenominal)iness go i nto and work without any prejudicial interest, with the fact that Board of Directors are the fiducial send officers of a company who work and intermediate between shareholders and management of the company whereas hearers are the representatives of public investors who must in all respects nurture and safeguard the investments of public.In spite of highly qualified CFOs, COOs and CEOs, who are penalized for locomote crash of the non-compliance, officers too invite criminal charges. In hunting lodge to preclude future s ejectdals in bodied America and excessively to protect all the investments of investors, President Bush signed the law of SOX on 30th July, 2002 and it was passed with Congress for unanimous support. For the common investor, SOX is a great saver and likewise enables complete transparency slightly a public listed company. Further this is besides in the interest of Federal Government whose responsibility to safeguard the global businesses and nations econ omy.Discrepancies found in Enron that determined foundation to SOX Enron filed loser in the year 2001 and the companys share dropped down from $ 90 per share to $ 0. 30 cents per share. Fortune magazine named Enron as Americas most innovative Company. Enron had nearly $ 101 billion revenues antecedent to the filing of bankruptcy and it was the most successful company in get together States in supplying electricity and natural gas. Surprisingly, all the credit grade agencies viz. , S&P, Moodys Investors Service, Fitch Rating live given all good credit ratings until Enrol filed Chapter 11. consort to SOX declareage standards , some of the discrepancies found in Enron are viz. , successive resignations of management, imprecise and unreliable financial statements, CEO stock sales during blackout period, nondisclosure of preferably CEO stock sales, off-balance sheet transactions to hide losses, destruction of bread and butter and rigging of ratings. After three months of coll apse of Enron, some other giant mesh company Global Crossing Ltd. , filed its bankruptcy indicating its financial condition.WorldCom followed by Tyco went solely bankrupt indicating disability to run the companies any longer. One common part in all of the above companies, is either mismanagement or non-practice of skipper accounting procedures which yielded the companies to its last stage of fate and certainly, this could yield been prevented by methodical and professional accounting procedures particularly with the authentication and certification of visitors who in all probability are relied upon by the SEC and Federal Government.Therefore, the emphasis here is that auditors have to be free and fair in certifying the financial statements and in order to thoroughly screen the public companies, without leaving any field for fraudulent account procedures, U. S. Government has initiated SOX law in the year 2002. (Jill gilbert Welytok Sarbanes-Oxley for Dummies) Literature Rev iew What is SOX law? Sarbanes-Oxley tour of 2002 also called as SOX is mandatary for all organisations including large and small.This legislation is aimed at enforcement of financial practices, regulations and to ensure corporate governance. Sarbanes-Oxley is named after Senator Paul Sarbanes and Representative Michael Oxley, who were main designers in setting itemise of deadlines for the compliance of legislation. SOX is arrnaged in eleven titles. Some of the most importance sections with count on to the compliance are sec. 302, 401, 404, 409, 802 and 906. Compliance by means of SOX has to be performed methodically, through straightlaced analysis and study.After a thorough work, SOX leaves no scope for any fraud or misre institution of facts and figures and by far, it recommends all the organisations to act in a credible manner stating that dont put off until tomorrow what can be done today in order to save companies and also refraining from adverse consequences caused by len ient views either by audit committees or by the management of the companies. SOX has helped many companies to draw bring in from the compliance of regulations as it provides a clear picture of financial lieu of the company and to those who would like to have to access to the information more or less a particular company.Further, this also helps the U. S Government to keep a sleepless eye on the financial status of companies and keeps a vigilance on the financial system of companies. (A guide to the Sarbanes-Oxley make believe 2002) Methods Section 302 of SOX This section is listed at a lower place(a) act III of the guess and details some Corporate right for Financial Reports. Section 302 states that periodic filing of statutory financial reports should be certified by the signing officers who must review the report. The report must not contain any untrue or false statements or omissions or misleading statements.The financial statements must state only link up information which is fairly presented and must also reflect on the financial condition of the company and must also details the results of all visible facts and aspects. The signing officers are responsible for all inside reigns and must pronounce these inwrought withstands within previous 3 months and must have describe on the findings. A list of all deficiencies if any found, in the internal controls or any fraud information that involves the employees of the company who are complicated in internal activities must be stated.Any significant change or observation made by the signing officers, within internal controls which can negatively impact must be reported by the officers. All the provisions of this Section cannot be avoided by transferring or reincorporating the activities of a company outside unite States. Whether company is operating within United States or outside United States, must comply with this Section as a registered company down the stairs Securities swop delegatin g. (A guide to Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002, stocky of section 302) Section 401 of SOXThis section is listed under Title IV of the Act and discusses about Disclosure in Periodic Reports. Financial statements published must be accurate and must not contain any erroneous statements or admit the fact that material information is stated. Financial statements apart from regular Profit & Loss Account and Balance Sheet, also accommodate off-Balance Sheet liabilities, obligations or any transactions. To this effect, the Commission would study and report with a complete analysis of off-Balance Sheet transactions and to what extent these are transparent.The Commission has also to decide whether GAAP principles or any other regulations are resulting in its reporting. Section 404 of SOX This section is listed under Title IV of the Act and discusses about Management Assessment of Internal Controls. All Annual Reports of companies have to publish information about the scope and adequacy of the in ternal control structure and other procedures with regard to financial reporting. This statement must also con house the long suit about internal controls and procedures.A registered accounting firm can also attest and report on the assessment and about effectiveness of the internal control procedures for financial reporting. Section 409 of SOX This section is listed under the Title IV of the Act and details about Real sentence Issuer Disclosures. Issuers are required to provide information on material changes pertaining to financial conditions or changes. Public must have access to information on urgent basis and no delay can be made. These disclosures have to be presented in an easy and understanding manner and the information should be qualitative with graphic presentations as required.Section 802 of SOX This section is listed in Title VIII of the Act and pertains to the Criminal Penalties for Altering Documents. This section states that penalties and finelys or imprisonment up to 20 years is levied on the persons who are responsible for altering, destroying, concealing, defense records or documents or tangible objects. This act done either with an pattern to obstruct, impede or to influence a legal investigation is seriously viewed by the SOX officers.Further this section also imposes penalty or fine or imprisonment up to 10 years on any accountant who knowingly or willfully violates the provisions of this section or violates the maintenance of audit or review of papers for a period of 5 years. Discussion SOX is divided into many parts and each part carries certain specific rules and regulations which are prescribed for easy understanding of corporates. SEC-Rules states about SOX SEC Rules and Regulations, which states that officers have to certify about the maintenance, regularity and establishment of effectiveness of the issuers internal controls.IC-Primer states about internal control framework, risk control, assessments, audit programs relating t o Sections 302 and 404 regarding Certification of Disclosure and Managements Internal Controls and Procedures. This framework established by COSO/SAS-78. SOX Act 2002 is aimed at to improve the quality and transparency in financial reporting, individual audit and accounting services for public companies and also to create a Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, to work towards setting up of standards for best accounting practices and also to strengthen the independence of audit firms who audit public companies.Further SOX is aimed at to increase the corporate responsibility and the utilizable advantages of financial disclosure, to protect the independence of securities analyst and also to improve the Securities and Exchange Commission re inaugurations for all purposes. SOA-Manual lists all the key dates and timetable, self-assessment questionnaires, definitions relating to Titles II and III regarding Auditor Independence and Corporate Responsibility.Forms have to be prepared independently or by the assistantship of a practitioner who is engaged to perform accounting compliance services. (Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002, Financial and Accounting Disclosure Information) According to Pricewaterhouse Coopers Report 2006, Audit Committees Effectiveness, what works best focus and emphasis is more on financial statements, compliance and ethics, relationship with external auditors, risk management and internal control which discuss as to how effective practice of auditing can be conducted in organizations.There is also an emphasis about external auditing and internal auditing which is conducted sporadically within the internal environment by internal audit committees and whose report can reveal much accounting information about the recording of business transactions of organizations. After the year 2002, which witnessed the unfortunate events in U. S. corporate domain, the entire corporate world, stood up for more accuracy and correct presentation in financial state ments.A quote which states prevention is better than heal which is applicable in health, is also now applicable to corporate sector with the fact that, companies would never reach to the last stage of liquidation or bankruptcy, if the companies had been properly conducting internal audits and external audit, and thoroughly complying with the auditing procedures and has been GAAP accounting practices, wrap up state-of-affairs could have been prevented and many companies could be saved.Another development in the corporate sector that is to be noted is, loss making companies or companies that are performing low in business, are finding many potency ways to save the companies by mergers or acquisitions. In the recent years, end-to-end the world thither have many mergers and acquisitions (M&A). For example Daimler-Benz is now called as DaimlerChrysler, JP Morgan & Chase Co. , purchased Bank One Corp, CitiCorp purchased Travelers Group, AT&T Inc purchased Bell southern Corporation.I t can be stated here that, M&A action saved many companies in the past decade and even saved jobs of many people. Apart from M&A activity, SOX Act is equally protect companies and public investments and there can be absolute assurance about the compliance of SOX regulations. This is due to the fact SOX aims at checking the fraudulent working of organizations. From another angle, SOX Act credibility is also being questioned by the legislative government and another alternative is also being looked for future business regulations.According to the authorities, who believe that the advantages of SOX would never last long which is why another source of compliance is being searched. (How Does The Sarbanes-Oxley Act Impact American Business? ) However, the Federal Government continues to update SOX mandates and in the year 2007, U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) canonic new auditing standard for internal controls. In order to bring more awareness about auditing, SEC and PCA OB are encouraging auditors to undertake risk-based get in the evaluation of internal controls on financial reporting of public companies.There are many benefits from SOX compliance such as findings can be used in evaluations, it would reduce the costs associated with risk assessment, it would also reveal the risks that an organization is confronted with and the remedial measures available to manage risk, help companies to pay back groundwork for risk assessment and to introduce more regulations and specifications and further a risk management program can be developed through SOX compliance.As stated above the success of SOX is quite benefiting to both American companies as well U. S. Federal Government with the fact that SOX identifies assets and activities, monitors the activities and ensures accuracy in financial statements which is the most important activity in checking the health of a listed company. Access to data wherever required demonstrates and indicates the practice o f Accounting Standards harmonize to FASB Rules and it reveals complete business transactions of a company.SOX can also go back entire events, records, commands given to data server and find out whether there is any mismanagement, forgery or fraudulent activity in the accounting procedures. SOX also generates audit reports which gives a full length of information about each and every company. The information that is provided by SOX enables Government to take needful steps to issues notices or memos to U. S companies to make necessary corrections wherever required and can also provide plans for remedial measures to save the companies from liquidation.SOX is a wake up call for many American businesses and also to all those foreign companies which are venturing into business with American companies. Conclusion SOX continues to keep the companies under check and investigation about the compliance of accounting procedures as laid in FASB Rules and also about the compliance of auditing p rocedures in internal controls. It is very difficult for American companies to evade any procedures which come under the celestial horizon of SOX and therefore, there is expected to be a neat and clean organizations with sharp auditing committees.

Puente Hill Toyota Essay

Puente Hills Toyota (PHT) is a large Toyota franchise which is owned by the corporation Hitchcock Automotive Services. PHT is situated in metropolis of industry, California, about 25 miles east of Los Angeles. PHT offers a wide variety of wise and used cars (this is unique in the industry). Furthermore they offer Toyota inducings, service specials, and Toyota move savings. The annual profits of PHT totaled about $1.8, with annual gross revenue of $ 85 million. PHT had a total of 145 employees. The employees ar very valuable to PHT collectable they are the ones who have to advise the customer, sell the vehicles and repair them. But it is steadfastly to keep them al motivated. As said by Howard Hakes Its passel who give us our biggest successes as well as our biggest challenges. The most meaning(a) is to get all the employees in the same direction, to reach the companies goals.For PHT there are two important things, that both the manufacturers and the customers are happy. PHT i s divided in v segments, who are reporting directly to the dealership manager, namely a sales department, and service department, a body shop department, a parts department and a Finance and Insurance department. The departments are managed as profit centers. at heart this profit centers there are different performance measurement and incentive systems. First the performance measures and incentive systems that apply to all the departments will be discussed. Than the Sales and Service department will be discussed separately. All the grant plans within the sales department start from one. At PHT, most employees variant incentive pay increases linearly with performance, however performance is defined that is, the higher(prenominal) the performance, the larger the bonuses that are paid.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Gran Torino Analysis

nanna Torino The concept of kenosis states that the Nazarene gave up rough of his godlike attributes while here on earth. The reason this was d wiz by Christ was so that he could function as a real man in order to complete his mission. Jesus humility go him to leave a more divine and majestic state and last enriched in human nature. This concept of kenosis can be easily use to the main final scene in Gran Torino in which Walt Kowalski empties himself up for justice in order to better the lives of his Asian neighbors.After an attack on the Vietnamese next door to him by a bunch of no good gang bangers, Walt is fed up and ready for justice. He goes at night to the house where Taos cousin and his gang fri set asides live. The scene starts as Walt approaches the house the gang members inside pass him and step out onto the porch. As words are exchanged between Walt and them, more and more guns get to be pointed at him. People in surrounding houses watch silently. Walt puts a cigar ette in his mouth and reaches in for his jacket for a twinkle (making it look as if he is about to pull out a gun).Rounds and rounds are unloaded on him, and he falls to the ground with his prized flatboat in hand. The police arrive and take away the gang bangers. We verify that Walt stepped pop up from his almost divine and staunch like pedestal to change by reversal friends and immerse himself with his Vietnamese neighbors, just as Jesus stepped down from his divine nature to empty himself and save our sins. Walts actions will rightfully back up to clean up the area and create a better spiritedness for all those who reside in that gang riddle neighborhood.The Gospel of buns 1015 and 1513 both have an boilersuit notion that in that location is no greater get it on than laying down virtuosos life for God and his children. Such a stiff message that truly seems to embody and highlight the overall theme of the characterisation Gran Torino. The overarching theme of Gran T orino seems to be one of freedom, justice, and love of ones neighbors. Walt Kowalski truly embodies these themes as his old school personality is riddled with strong beliefs engrained with justice. All throughout the movie, the Vietnamese gang is met with great foeman by none other than Walt Kowalski.He is absolutely disgusted with and hates to see the neighborhood littered with gang bangers who act as though they are exclusively free, have no respect or reek of justice, and could care slight about loving ones neighbor. Right then and there we see that there is going to be quite a touch of conflict between Walt and these men, and that proves consecutive as Walt lays down his life for the love of ones neighbor. Injustice, disrespect, and a disregard for love and ones neighbor are the ideals that Walt Kowalski cant stand to see riddle the neighborhood that he lives in.Walt becomes an almost Christ like figure at the end of the movie as he gives himself up for love, just as Jesus did for humanity. One symbol that has a truly great importance throughout the movie is Walts Gran Torino, that he himself actually helped build on the assembly line. The Gran Torino is a relic and a symbol of the past, of fleece, of a job done right, and of his ideas that he hopes to pass on to futurity generations. The Gran Torino symbolizes a time when life used to make more sense, where population like him used to live and where old school ideals and lifestyles were prevalent.He now lives in a neighborhood riddled with gang activity and folks conflicting himself (Hmong). In a world polluted with misguided thoughts and actions, the Gran Torino stands strong. This shows that although he now lives in the world where he does, his old school ideals and beliefs remain. The pride that Walt has in his Gran Torino is so truly apparent in this film. We see his immense pride in a job done right, one of Walts defining characteristics. But the Gran Torino is most importantly a symbol of t he ethics and beliefs that Walt holds dear that he wants to be passed on to early generations.His old school beliefs coupled with his immense amount of pride and sense of justice are what the Gran Torino embodies. He wants these ideals to be passed on to future generations in a world where such ideals are hard to find. This is truly seen in Walt mentoring Tao and allowing him to work on and also use the Torino. We see the anatomy of this symbol when at the end of the movie, the Gran Torino is left to Tao in his will, exhibit that Walt truly hopes what he believes in will still be true in future generations.

Describe a setting in which you have collaborated

AS you grow up you be going to foregather a variety of contrastive people. Every person you meet are not going to have the same views on life as you are . 1 came to realize that when my close friend Bianca and I disagreed on the topic going to college. Bianca and I have been friends since freshman year. Surprisely we never brought up the topic of college until senior year. One day I decided to operate looking at colleges online to get an idea about where I cute to go.AS I browse through colleges on College Board Bianca called me yelling and emit about the new preview of teen wolf season 2. I was excited too but at the time I rightfully wasnt focus on that. I was more focus on what aim I wanted to attend. I decided to ask Bianca what college she wanted to go too. To my disbelief she say she wasnt going to college. I was astonished because she was such a smart and bright student. College also is such a big thing in my family.After high school thats where you were expected to go. I ask Bianca why she didnt want to go to college she replied saying because nobody in her family has ever foregone to college. Everyone in her family was expected to work and most of all her family couldnt afford it. We celebrate talking more and more about college. I convinced her to go because its alot of programs out there to help her to go to college almost or rase free. Education is so important.It would help her to get ere dream career of bonny a nurse. As she thought about it she said she was going to discipline everything we talked about into consideration. At first I was astonished by the position one of my closet friends that I known since freshman year said she wasnt attending college. Then I came to realize that everyone comes from different backgrounds and have different views on things. In the end I convinced Bianca to attend college and cultivation is important. This fall semester we will be roommates

Friday, February 22, 2019

Goals After Graduation

Its a day to look back and hump the success throughout the years. Graduation and receiving your diploma is the key to success. Graduates should waste a aim in mind of what they want to do with their future. My goal for when I graduate is, to continue my education through college and earn my period as a medical assistant. The Medical assistant field is always exalted in demand. And Its one of the top paying fields.I think In swan for you to enjoy work you have to find something you are comfortable doing. When background signal a goal you have to keep In mind that you have to try to do whatever Is In your hands to action that goal. Earning my degree to become a Medical assistant Is my goal because I venerate helping others. And the fact well paying field Is a plus. cosmos that I have 5 children and I want the bets for them. I would love to be able to help my husband provide for our childrens dally needs.And I know with the help and support of my husband and children I voli tion be able to achieve my goal of finishing college and earning my degree as a Medical assistant. I know that reaching my goal of earning my degree will take lots of patience and perseverance from my part. But hey nobody tell it would be easel Setting goals for after graduating is very valuable so you lowlife have an I idea of what you want to do with your future. Graduating is already an achieved goal that we all set when we first enter grade school.And that is one of lifes close to important goal, graduating high school. In conclusion, making goals for after graduating is very important because it helps you have a better planned future. Goals are hard to achieve but are very important in life. Dont let anyone dispel you from achieving your goal. Dont matter how old you are with patience and perseverance you will compass your goal. I know I will do my best to achieve my goal to earn my degree for Medical assistant.

Project Management: Project Failures Sydney Opera House

bulge watchfulness PROJECT FAILURES Sydney opera category kinfolk CONTENTS Introductionp. 3 Historyp. 3 4 Stakeholdersp. 4 7 Stakeholder salmagundip. 5 Stakeholder Power/Interest Gridp. 7 Causes for fancy flush iturep. 8-10 lose of risk chargep. 9 Unrealistic convictionscale and Cost escalationp. 10 Recomm terminusationsp. 10 14 Risk Managementp. 11 Forecastingp. 11 12Stakeholder Engagementp. 12 14 Conclusionp. 14 Referencesp. 15 16 Introduction For this grant the chore chosen to critic altogethery analyse its mishap is the Sydney Opera House. Critically analysing its failure and its consequences and let oning swingeing travail counselling procedures made me look into this object intensively and evaluate it as a purge failure with a happy turn back.This assignment will be divided in three of import move which argon History where it will be explained what the Sydney Opera mansion is and what was the procedure of the show, a Stakeholders section where the separate stakeholders will be identified and discussed, a bulge out Failure section identifying what bad management procedures were taken and for croak there will be a Recommendations section recommending new procedures to evacuate an over budget and over magazined pop out, which this is part of.For the architect Jorg Utzon it is his chef-doeuvre, to Australia as a country it is their representative monument as reality Heritage ( formulate5 final report 2010). Although escort film director and client atomic result 18 now happy with the final product it can close up be considered as a leap out failure due to a bulky well over budget and over timed thrust with consequences that argon lighten being repaired, almost 40 years later. History In 2003 Utzon is awarded with the Pritzker, the architectures Nobel.It was said of Sydney Opera House (from now on in this assignment in addition known as SOH) that it is one of the huge iconic buildings of the twentieth century (Murray, P. 2004). It all started in 1957 when Utzon were chosen to be the architect for this forcing out. Everything was going according with the depict save when two years after the new elected regime ( non the one that agreed with Utzons send) was getting impatient.More and much companies were being put into the cypher (in the final more than 165 companies, suppliers intromitd, contri anded to this tolerate) and the costs were being added and the new governance was pressing Utzon as much as the media trying to cut in costs and festinate up the project*. They also decided to mixture the previous project after its spin as started and now instead of 2 home entourage they treasured 4*.Utzon was losing control of the situation and had an undesirable force under him. The initial cost was (Aus) 7 million dollars and in the end it has cost (Aus) 102 million dollars and a total of 14 years to be constructed, 6 more than it should be*. The Arup, engineers contr solveed fo r the engine room part stayed until the end of the project simply Utzon left in the end , after scheming the cap but not concluding.It was hard to keep two of the secernate stakeholders happy, the diplomatic minister David Hughes and the SOHEC Sydney Opera House Executive Committee so he decided to quit blaming the prototypical of neediness of cooperation but in particular proposition even the acoustic consultants did not agree surrounded by each otherwise(a)wise (Murray, 2004 66) and as a result of all these changes of plans and mis bring inings the Sydney Opera House faultless by three local architects button up did not had the proper acoustic, which was the premiere main factor that lead to a new opera house*.Nowadays the Sydney Opera House is already seen as profitable since its cost was already covered by the revenue made from customers (tourists mainly) but further improvements on admittanceing conditions were taken. Stakeholders Before going back to the sub ject it is leaded to take into grievance that a failed project is a project that is cancelled before completion, neer implemented, or damaged in some way. Other reasons that why projects fail atomic number 18 an absence of commitment, a bad project organisation and planning, a bad time management, lack of coachial control, extra costs among other tasks.Among all these reasons the Stakeholders play a big part in the projects that they ar involved and sometimes a project can go defile depending on decisions taken by these groups. To start this stage of the assignment it is ingrained to identify the stakeholders all the users that directly or indirectly affect positively or negatively the project. (Polychronakis, 2011) The analysis will be assisted from the member Toward a theory of a stakeholder identification and salience Defining the rationale of whom and what really counts, determining which of the stakeholders hold which of its three assigns, one can identify stakeho lders.Then Stakeholders can be analysed by its salience. Explaining briefly the three attributes occasion enables to act despite resistance of others, legitimacy is being seen as acting befittingly within context norms and indispensableness relates to time sensitivity and importance of the stakeholder (Mitchell 1997). Stakeholder assortment Power received Urgent Type Stakeholder Classification Power Legitimate Urgent Type NSW political sympathies x x x authorized Public Works, David Hughes x x unreliable Utzon x x Dangerous Arup x x DominantSOHEC x x Dominant concept group x x Dependent Engineer Team x x Dependent Consultants x x Dependent Suppliers x x Dependent Contractor x x Dependent Hall, Todd, Littlemore (Three architects hired) x x Dependent Construction Workers x x Dependent Public/Customers x Discretionary Media x x x Dangerous in that respect are 14 main stakeholders NSW authorities Can be considered the client so its type is definitive, has the power to over ask and the project manager has to memorialise urgency on keeping him happy.David Hughes Having the role of Public Works minister for the new NSW government he has dealt directly with the project having the power to persuade it and as a clients representative has the same urgency status. Is considered Dangerous because although is not definitive (could be re military positiond for example) he affects directly the project as client representative (pressuring Utzon till he resigned) Utzon Being the project manager and architect he presented the project and knowing it so he has power on the project itself and on the staff.He has an urgent characteristic because he continuously needs to keep on track of the projects milestones and delivery dates. Arup as the engineers comp either they scram some power on the project but no urgency at all since they range when it is told to but is legitimated to act within the norms but couldnt deliberately c hange anything and was socially accepted. Is dominant because has a key role in the project. SOHEC Although it has the power to demand certain characteristics and has legitimacy in the project it doesnt concord big urgency since it isnt a client but a clients influencer.Good to keep informed. Working staff (remaining stakeholders) They dont guide swell power but they are dependent on milestones so also they have the urgency to meet expectations. They also have their legitimateness since they depend on each other and need to coordinate their designed areas. Hall, Todd and Littlemore, the three architects that replaced Utzon dont have any power since everything was plotted and they precisely needed to re-design the detonator in a way that could conform to the foundations.Public/Customers Since they are watching learns and over costs being paid from their taxes they are on the legitimate attribute because they are on the socially accepted and expected behaviours side (Mitchel l 1997). Media Has the indirect power of showing a project as a project triumph or failure. Meets the parameters of the legitimate attribute expecting behaviours and has the urgency of being time sensitive (generating news with the project delay). The main stakeholder was the architect, but Utzon was much more pertain with the design aspect earlier than time andcosts objectives, which proved problematic.During the project, Utzon collaborated with Ove Arup, who was in charge of the structure and the engineering while subcontractors were in charge of mechanics, electrics, heating and ventilating, lighting and acoustics. There was no real project manager, but rather collaboration between Utzon and Arup. The other main stakeholder was the client, the state of New South Wales (Australian government). A executive citizens committee was created to provide project supervision but the members had no real skillful skills.The government eventually became an obstacle to the project polic e squad by inhibiting changes during the proficiency of the operationsand thus contributed to cost overrun and delays. Finally, the public and media was an indirect stakeholder because they were concerned with the projects success. Defining INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS. External stakeholders The immaterial stakeholders can be considered as anyone outside the implementing organisations who could be affected by the projects results.Internal Stakeholders Internal stakeholders are those associated with the process, typically members of the project team or the face structure. After describing what infixed and external stakeholders are, it can be undertake what stakeholders need more attention, or in other words, need to be more satisfied. It is known that its impossible to keep all the stakeholders happy at the same time so the following plan will show that it was essential to keep NSW government and Mr.David Hughes happy (a monitor to say that the relationship between Utzon and David Hughes wasnt good). The relationship with Arup should be stronger in dress to have a let on sufficeance linking departments. As a result (of not doing it) the crown couldnt haul the foundations created by Arup (the crown was besides heavy for the foundations material) and the amount of resources would not be so many times recalculated, it would have minimized the time exhausted and the money eatd. The relation with the media should also be managed better.The relationship between stakeholders was too transparent and what was meant to be a huge partner advertising the project ended up pulling down the project in harm of future customers argue of view (customers would be operate by the media and associate the Sydney Opera House negatively). Also the relationship with the SOHEC could be better driven since it was the major beneficiated within the project. They did not pay for it (the government did) and they were represented by the ones that would use it the most but what was hope was glum into despair. POWER Keep Satisfied Manage Closely SOHEC NSW Government Arup David Hughes Media monitor Only Keep Informed Design Team Consultants Engineer Team Suppliers Contractor INTEREST Causes for project failure A project is a set of people and other resources temporarily assembled to reach a specified objective, normally with a fixed budget and with a fixed time period. sends are generally associated with products or procedures that are being done for the front time or with known procedures that are being altered (Graham 1985).Sidney Opera house was meant to be the perfect construction that allied Utzons angiotensin-converting enzyme and Arups structural expertise (Murray, P. 2004) but it is necessary to accept the fact that neither of them were a project manager, that just in the 70s started to be another person rather than being an engineer or an architect (the project manager), so Utzons management skills were based on experience and knowledge in his sector rather than in project management itself (lack of planning and management skills), which changes positions.While Utzon had a masterpiece perspective, Arup had a labor movement perspective. If they were project managers they would be more oriented to fulfil the stakeholders perspectives and the disdain by project perspective where they would focus on project investments and bene? ts, which include project results, project success, strategy, pro? t and bene? ts (Bjorn Johs. Kolltvei, 2005). Another main point is the fact of the allowance for the project changes at any time. The Sydney Opera house was supposed to have 2 rooms but ended up having 4 rooms.So it can show some discrepancy between what was wanted (before and after the new government) and what was delivered . In this project particularly the Government has changed so it is hard to say that is someones fault but in fact it had an impact, always asking for changes and putting pressure in Utzon. This shows that the agreements between Utzon and the previous Australian Government did not have strong levels of engament with the internal stakeholders (government, Minister, SOHEC).According to the OGC the UK Office of Government Commerce, it is essential to have assoil organisational boundaries and clear governance arrangements to ensure sustainability and it did not go throughed in this project, where the pressure was horrendous on Utzon to be use as the responsible for this huge cost and time overrun (and he has his fault because of the massive fail when designing a roof not sustained by its foundations and lack of cooperation with the Arup resulting on a bad choice of the materials for the roof) but Utzon cant be blamed by the recurrent changes asked on the entrances (still eing re-arran ged) and the halls, which had really poor acoustic feature. The Sydney Opera House was meant to be one of the six best opera houses in the earthwith a fine concert hall with perfect acoustics (Murray, P. 2004) But at the same time mother fucker Murray also states that (opera) however, was a minor interest. There were some local groups and the occasional tour from an Italian company but it was it.This shows that a major stakeholder the public was not taken into consideration since the tie was more international than national, but even there it failed(need to bear in mind that nowadays SOH is more profitable with huge concerts and museum and tenderness because it was re-oriented for more than Opera concerts) . The (new concept) of the halls were against the musical competition rules (being put side by side) and the acoustic were really poor, so even thou the objectives were delivered they didnt call properly about its benefits.Nowadays the Sydney Opera House had its changes es pecially in the access areas, parking and acoustics and now is used for the purpose of concerts and as a museum (tourist attraction). Lack of skills and proven approach to Project management and risk management As it is said, Project management was only developed in the 70s and 80s so the experience took place over the project management science (not really developed during the 50s) so it unquestionably lacked during the process. Error Margins completely malign, years and millions more were used and that is the biggest signal of a Project that has failed, when its error margins do not apply.Fortunately the SOH was re-used in order to have Return on Investment but not delivering a project oriented to its benefits is definitely a signal of project failure. The railyard of the project did not meet expectations, but those 14 years could have been less. Again the roof was the biggest problem. This has to be related with the lack of processes in place to ensure that all parties have a clear hearing of their roles and responsibilities, and a shared cause of desired outcomes, key terms and deadlines( Office of Government Commerce, CP0015/01/05).Furthermore the integration of such a big egress chain and still Utzon couldnt estimate the right amount of the right material for its foundations and roof (10%, 20% more resources on the overall budget is what it should be as part of the total budget and those 20% extra would be used for any emergency) shows no cooking stove and interaction with other participants (stakeholders). The entire sassy cited before shows lack of understanding. Utzon designed a roof that couldnt match with Arups foundations. Too many tiers, which goes against the prioritisation that is essential in a come forth chain.So it crossed over three main causes for a project failure Cost escalation, time escalation (error margins) and disturbance of the core processes (politics). Unrealistic timescale and Cost escalation? In the case of the Sydney O pera House incomplete plans, drawings and a lack of tuition about the material and the structure of its now-famous roof all added dramatically to the cost. The estimators (consultants, accountants, auditors) didnt shake off those errors other members of the project team did (Utzon, Arup).When the construction started there was no clearconcept of how the roof might be constructed. Its not that the estimates were wrong its that there was nothing to base the estimates on in the first place. Much of the delay and cost overrun was caused by iteration on roof design and lack of Data, eventually landing on a solution that constructed the roof out of interlocking tiles, but this solution was only discovered after a lot of time and childbed. PM effort is coordinated to reach a particular goal or perform some speci? c function. The ? eld demonstrates. . . means-end paradigm with a strong focus on discipline, goal anticipateing and end-item accomplishment (Pollack, J. 2006) this is why U tzon was a great architect and a bad project manager, because in this particular project he look out oned all these premises. Because of the time (the 50s) some major knowledge cant be used because it is unknown but it can be identified as lack of agile project management, a major failure to engage stakeholders, inappropriate leadership musical mode (Utzon resigned before the project was completed), insufficient procedures (as it was said before relating cost and time escalation).Recommendations Field tells us that projects fail too often because the project scope was not fully appreciated and/or user needs not fully understood. The meaning of a project can be materialized in the Sidney Opera House, but although it was a project, it failed by several reasons. RISK guidance The . . . traditional thinking behind a project risk management (PRM) framework is essentially centrist, authoritarian. It . . . assumes that the central project manager knows best (Williams 40, p. 219).Willia ms suggests that in Project Management participation and empowerment may actually emergence risk by reducing centralised control. Without an agreement that could make Utzon arrive on the project agreed before his risk management couldnt fit in new perspectives from the client like more rooms (halls). Demanding more and asking to reduce time due to the existent delay that was not expected in Utzons margins based on the projects milestones it shows that the pressure pretending to take power from Utzon (led to his resignation) helped to make of this project a failure.So, Risk Management would be one of the main focuses if I was the Project Manager. Achieving milestones, regular monitoring, evaluating and updating risk management plans and risk registers and confirm risk management processes for the duration of the project. FORECASTING DEALING WITH EXTERNAL MOTIVES Essentially, projects are like organisations. They have project governance, internal management systems, a number of st aff, external stakeholders, an external environment and goals, objectives and deliverables.However, project delivery in the construction industry comes with a higher degree of uncertainty due to industrial factors, complexity and changing technologies and uniqueness of projects where time, cost and quality need to be managed, sometimes equally, sometimes differently. Time Quality Cost In this particular case I would set up a standard of quality and add 20% margin error on the budget for resources. With a focus on quality I would make sure that the project would stick on the agreed and every change emanded would have a new budget and time escalation so the Government would think double before demanding. With a focus on quality and the cost already decided (with 20% for resources) the two main problems would be solved (the roof problem and the 50 million (AUS) dollars of cost overrun). Furthermore the time problem would be solved with an exact check point on milestones any delay would be due to external motives like a equatorial catastrophe or any alteration decided by the government but they would know in advance the cost and time waste of their decisions straight away instead of just demand alterations.STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT strategical approach Stakeholder Engagement is designed to take account of all the individuals and groups wedged by the proposed change and achieve a deeper understanding of their various interests. So, as a project manager I would make sure that the 6 principles below would be the foundations of my relation with the stakeholders. Significance deal with issues of significance to stakeholders and the agency. Completeness understand the concerns, views, needs and expectations.Responsiveness respond coherently and appropriately Communication open and efficient Transparency clear and agreed information and feedback processes. Collaboration work to seek mutually beneficial outcomes where feasible. Inclusiveness recognise, understand and invo lve stakeholders in the process. Integrity rent engagement in a manner that fosters mutual respect and trust. (Australian enchiridion for citizenship, Stakeholder Engagement Section, Strategic Policy Group, Implementation and Stakeholder Engagement Branch, 2008).Identifying the projects stakeholders, assessing them, and determining how they should be managed is a part of that process. When engaging stakeholder it is needed to identify, prioritise, understand and plan communication theory with stakeholders. When engaging stakeholder it is needed to identify, prioritise, understand and plan communications with stakeholders. The first and second points are already done with the stakeholder identification and classification above and also the Interest/Power grid designed before. As a reminder, pushcart states that, 2003, p. 261).Apart from the stakeholder groups identifiable by their more obvious tie-up with projects there are clear and major groups that are invisible but whose coop eration and support is vital for project success(2003, p. 261) so I would manage my tiers (in supply chain for materials) having three (tiers) for different specific materials instead of dealing with hundreds. taste stakeholders would be another important thing to start from. Apart from forecast I believe that is one of the best concepts that have to be collective in a project manager preparation to start a project.Asking himself what, who, when is really important and the understanding of the projects deliverables leads to a better understanding of stakeholders needs. That leads to a better collaboration between manager and stakeholders. Mitchell states that making collaboration between influential stakeholders and the project manager happen depends on personal behaviour changes by knowledge workers to not only work collaboratively but also to share knowledge. (Mitchell 2002, p. 59). Understanding Stakeholders leads to good communications.Following its key concerns and follow th e Power/Interest grid leads to a good understanding between stakeholders and project manager so all the four step has to be co-related. Conclusion Sydney Opera House is considered a project failure, weakness on the time scale and cost overrun and the quality of it is still being refurbished but it is an international attraction and no tourist wants to miss it when they go to Sydney. Utzon delivered his masterpiece but in a project managers point of view he had his limitations.Bad forecasting, bad planning skills and lack of stakeholder engagement were the main reasons for this project failure and I would have cogitate on milestones, identifying stakeholders, prioritising necessities and having a clear cost/time perspective and also having a clear risk assessment. References Mitchell, K. (2002), Collaboration and information sharing an ROI perspective? , The Public Manager, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 59-62 Lock, D. , Project Management, 5th edn. Gower, 1992. Nicholas, J. M. , Management o f patronage and Engineering Projects. Prentice Hall, 1990.J. K Pinto, J. E Prescot, Variations in critical success factors over the stages in the project life cycle Journal of Management, 14 (1) (1988), pp. 518 Kerzner H. , In search of excellence in project management. Journal of Systems Management, 1987, 3039 David I. Cleland, Lewis R. Ireland (2006). Project Management Strategic Design And Implementation. 5th edn. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 17-35. A RETROSPECTIVE LOOK AT OUR EVOLVING UNDERSTANDING OF PROJECT SUCCESS Kam Jugdev Ralf Muller Project Management Journal Dec 2005 36, 4 ABI/INFORM Global pg. 19 J.N Wright, Time and budget the twin imperatives of a project sponsor. International Journal of Project Management, 15 3 (1997), pp. 181186 Peter Murray (2004). The Saga Of Sydney Opera House The Dramatic Story Of The Design And Construction Of The delineation Of Modern Australia. Bedford Park Taylor Francis. p3-18. Bjorn Johs. Kolltveit et al. , Perspectives on project man agement, International Journal of Project Management (2006), doi10. 1016/j. ijproman. 2005. 12. 002 Julien Pollack, The changing paradigms of project management, International Journal of Project Management (2006), doi10. 016/j. ijproman. 2006. 08. 002 Williams T. Assessing and moving on from the dominant project management discourse in the light of project overruns. IEEE Trans Eng Manage 200552(4)497 Office of Government Commerce, CP0015/01/05, 2004 Field, Tom. (1997). When bad things happen to good projects, CIO magazine, Oct 15, 1997, Vol. 11, 2 pg. 54, 6 pgs. Lynda Bourne and Derek H. T. Walker Visualising and mapping stakeholder influence RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia (2003) Project Management Lectures from workweek 2 (1st semester) to week 7 (as of 2nd semester)