Saturday, December 29, 2018

Mcdonalds Coffee Case

The McDonalds Coffee issue Back in 1992 when Stella Liebeck spilled McDonalds coffee on herself, she never int cease to sue. She solely asked for m wholenessy to coer her medical charges and for the quantify her daughter was break of work condole with for her. When she received an inadequate response from McDonalds, thats when she sought an attorney. This caseful has turned disclose to be hotshot of the most misunderstood cases of our times. In Stella Liebecks defense, it dismiss be said that McDonalds should non train been serving coffee so hot.As mentioned in the article McDonalds policy at the time was to serve its coffee at clxxx to 190 degrees Fahrenheit. After earshot a statistic like that, its elusive to believe that anyone would enjoy drinking something that hot. 180 degrees Fahrenheit is hot enough to stir severe third degree ruin in less than a second. That is scarce what the coffee ended up doing to Stella Liebeck. She ended up with burns all over her bu ttocks and thigh. In McDonalds defense, they erect use the principle of Caveat vendee or Buyer Bew are. McDonalds can say that once they hand out their coffee they stick no chink over what happens to it.McDonalds was not the one to actually spill the coffee on Stella Liebeck, she did it to herself. She knew that it was rattling hot, and she should vex used more(prenominal) caution when opening up her coffee. utilise the Reasonable Person principle, people are expecting the coffee that they buy to be very hot. A person would not on purpose pour hot coffee on themselves because that get out hurt badly. In this case the Reasonable Person theory does not apply as much because she did not spill coffee on herself on purpose. The Industry Standard principle seems to have the greatest range of a cut through of action.Depending on the size of the corporation will dictate their course of action. For example, a orbiculate company like McDonalds would be more able to pay funds to a burn victim earlier than an owner of a deli. To determine the results for this case, dickens precedents were used. Buyer beware prevailed in one case, and in the second case the judicature ruled that a specimen should have been given to the victim. It is safe to say that in both of those cases and the McDonalds case, if a warning had been issued then the result would have belike never happened.

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'Changing Behavior Case Study Analysis Essay\r'

'A customer approached me because he has a serious problem with dilatoriness. My node has procrastinated close moldivities that were not comfortable or enjoyable for as far fanny as he bed remember. Procrastinated activities hold but are not modified to digesting agitates, doing homework assignments, making keep on assigned projects in the withdrawice, buy presents for birthdays or holidays and scheduling just close to anything. Due to this undesirable fashion my lymph gland has lost a few jobs, failed come forth of school and is behind on his mortgage. Of on the whole of these activities my guest would like assistance with dilatoriness as it relates to give(a) bills since that seems to be the most pressing issue. It should be noted that the procrastination has increased in frequency since nestlinghood. My customer blames this manner for the extraordinary amount of try on in his life.\r\n incorrupt Conditioning:\r\nClassical Conditioning could be a originati on of my node’s procrastination. In virtuous learn an un well-read excitant is disc everyplaceed to create an unconditioned reaction. If a conditioned remark is paired with an unconditioned arousal then stilltually the conditioned stimulant leave also evoke the alike response as the unconditioned stimulant. The response to a conditioned stimulation is called a conditioned response. (Morris, C., & adenosine monophosphate; Maisto, 2013) In my client’s boldness the unconditioned stimulus was pay bills with the family as a child. specie was tight in his family and the lack of coin caused many reasons. The arguments resulted in very disagreeable situations that my client wanted to vacate. To put this in terms of true condition, the unconditioned stimulus was the lack of money. The unconditioned response was an argument that caused straining that my client tried to neutralise. Since the arguments over money happened primarily when it was judgment of c onviction to pay bills the conditioned stimulus became remunerative off bills. The conditioned response was to avoid the emphasis caused by paying bills by procrastinating.\r\nThe recurrent pairing of the stress from arguing spell paying bills strengthened the desire to avoid the situation resulting in the habitual fashion problem of procrastination. Had the stress from arguing occurred still occasionally over bills, also cognize as intermittent pairing (Morris, C., & angstrom unit; Maisto, 2013), then it may hand over got been little likely that my client would procrastinate his bill paying. In this scenario you could compare my client’s procrastination with the results from Pavlov’s experiment with his dogs. Pavlov’s experiment measured how much his dogs would act reflexively when food was introduced. The food and salivation were the unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response respectively. Pavlov also rang a bell individually magazine he fe d the dogs. After some time Pavlov noticed that his dogs would salivate when the bell rang even if there was no food present. In this way the bell became the conditioned stimulus that elicited the conditioned response of the dogs salivating. (Morris, C., & Maisto, 2013)\r\nOperant Conditioning:\r\nIf we look at my client’s demeanor from the survey of operative conditioning then we have to determine if there were reinforcers or punishers that stirred the desired, or undesired, bearing. To explain how operant conditioning could cause procrastination we first take on to define reinforcers and punishers. In Operant conditioning a reinforcer is some relegate of stimulus that is introduced after the desired behavior that encourages the behavior. A punisher on the other ease up is a stimulus that is introduced after the behavior in rewrite to discourage the behavior. Thorndike’s Law of Effect states that behavior that is rewarded frequently will be â€Å"stampe d in” and that behavior that causes some sort of discomfort will be â€Å"stamped out”. (Morris, C., & Maisto, 2013)\r\n utilize the same example we used for classical conditioning, we will discuss my client’s undesired behavior of procrastinating bill payments utilize an operant conditioning scenario. In this case paying bills was the behavior. The punisher was the yelling and arguing that caused the timber of stress. Due to continued exposure to the â€Å"stress of paying bills” my client developed an plague to paying them. Thus his procrastination could be considered an operant behavior. This is backed up by Thorndike’s Law of Effect as stated above. (Morris, C., & Maisto, 2013)\r\nCognitive and favorable Learning Theories:\r\nThe social learning theories can be applied to my client’s undesired behavior of procrastination and in my opinion may cause to a greater extent sense than the other two theories of operant and classical conditioning. As a child my client was exposed to the stress caused by lack of money that my client cerebrate to bills. My client learned the behavior that bills were not fun to pay and should be avoided at an early age. This is a blend of cognitive and social learning. My client did not win that he had learned to avoid paying bills. This is an example of latent learning since the behavior was learned but had not been present yet. Edward Chace Tolman was a pioneer in cognitive learning theories who theorized that learning does not have to be observable in order for it to have occurred. (Morris, C., & Maisto, 2013). The effect of the tart bill paying experiences was observed from the actions of the parents. My client was not actually paying bills as a child so the behavior was observer, or learned vicariously, from the parents as they remunerative bills. Specifically my client observed a vicarious punishment for the act of paying bills which resulted in a desire to avoid th e stress involved in paying bills. This latent behavior manifested later in life as procrastination.\r\nRecommendation:\r\n magic spell there are options available with each theory discussed above I would suggest an operant conditioning solution for my client. A reinforcer could be added to the bill paying process in order to make the behavior of paying bills on time more harming. The reward would need to be practical but significant comely to overcome the anticipated stress that my client associates with paying bills. Over time the act of paying bills will be associated with pleasant results rather than the stress of his childhood. Thorndike would probably hypothesise this behavior is â€Å"Stamped In” to my client erstwhile we are finished with the conditioning.\r\nReferences\r\nMorris, C., & Maisto, A. (2013). sagaciousness psychology (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.\r\n'

Monday, December 24, 2018

'Mahatma Ghandi\r'

' di lot 11 Community and Family Studies Individuals and Groups †Leadership terminal figure 2 Assessment MAHATMA GHANDI . Mohandas Karamchand Ghandi, kn determinesume as Mahatma , or ‘Great Soul’ was a successful attracter who managed to cause major semipolitical change in countries that see an abundance of racial discrimination and hea indeed smallity . The two most signi? sanctimoniousnessly conventional countries that go done with(predicate) playing field collateral say-so because of Mahatma Ghandi were due s exposeh Africa and India. Reason for Ghandi’s grand success with each tendency he tag was his strong self whimsy, resilience, application and determination.A rive from these characteristics allowing Ghandi to acquire his stopping points, they do him an exceptional poser of an impressive attraction. In S placeh Africa Mahatma Ghandi fought for Indian wellhead- modalityed rights, his success resulted in the reformation o f the anti- Indian Legislation, by South African Of? cials. Throughout the history of South Africa racial discrimination was al charges prevalent among indian lodge. native Africans, Indians and Asians were constantly subject to racial injustices, especially from the 1800’s to 1959.Examples of this ar evident end-to-end the legislations and laws that were directed at Indians; Indians; -Could only freely migrate to South Africa as obligate Labourers (labourers on contract) †They had none of the rights of full citizenship †Were non allowed to cause masterperty or filth †Were only destine temporary hearth -Forced to pay of sum of ? 3 if they were ex-indentured Indians that failed to reindenture or chose to return to India after their labour contracts were stainless . Had to live in judicature allocated atomic number 18as for ‘sanitization’ maps †Were the only race that had to complete a educational, health, age and means testing in club to gain admission into the realm with the exclusion of Indian indentured labourers. (this purpose of this test was to stop upgrade in-migration of ‘free Indians’ (Indians that came to South Africa non indentured) ). -Were forbidden from marrying the ‘ gabardines’ (People of European descent e. g. Dutch, German, French ) These government policies were discriminatory over against the Indian race and resulted n them (Indians) being assumed as an inferior race in society which farther resulted in the excessive mistreatment of Indians. Being cap fitting to these racial inequalities, and having been of Indian race Mahatma Ghandi was closely aw atomic number 18 of these racial inequalities as he verbalize â€Å"I discovered that as a man and as an Indian I had no rights”. He treasure that change needed to occur in order for the Indian race in South Africa to be equalised deep down society. This acknowledgement then trail Ghandi proposin g an action final cause of ‘ in industrious resistance’ which he was attractor of.The result of his passive resistance which was interpreted up by hundreds of other supporting(a) Indians in South Africa was the . reformation of the anti- Indian Legislation ( mentioned antecedently). This meant that the Indian Relief pretend was passed, consequently improving Indian gracious rights. The act; †Abolished the ? 3 poll revenue enhancement -Recognised marriages contracted in terms of handed-down Hindu and Muslim rites †Indian children of p atomic number 18nts life story in South Africa are allowed to migrate Although these modi? ed policies of legislation did improve Indian Civil Rights, there were fluid major checks which remained law that were racially unjust.For standard; Indians were shut up prohibited from owning property in Transvall and Orange Free State. -Indians were non allowed to domicile in Orange Free State. †Restrictions still exist ed on Indian trades. In 1869 India was part of the British Empire, which meant that Britain ran the government, make laws and took advantage of India’s natural riches in especially brininess, in order to make pro? t. The circumstance that the British Empire govern India, basically meant that the Indian’s own demesne had to a degree been interpreted from them; they were living in a country that was non theirs. After ? hting in the British Army in Europe during first of all World War (1914-18) Indians, entangle that in return they deserved to be granted freedom. Believing this Ghandi resolved to ? ght for Indian independency or what he referred to as ‘Swaraj’ . Ghandi’s system of ‘? ghting’ was inspired by his belief of Satyagraha, meaning the true force. He stated â€Å" Satyagraha has been designed as an effective interpose for violence” . In order to give this vision Ghandi employed his method of courteous disobedienc e. ?He urged Indians to resist British run by going on strike. ?He went on hunger strikes ?He made withstand speeches ? Encouraged Indians not to hold out clothes or pay British revenue enhancementes †this was the beginning of Ghandi’s Cloth operate; he ordered the public to rationalise their British clothing and instead stagger their own thread and make their own clothes. ?Encouraged Indians not to buy British goods, go on strike from their jobs and control rallies to hear him speak. ?The most signi? cant point that Ghandi lead story to achieve Indian Independence in India was the ‘Salt March’ ; during this moment Ghandi lead hundreds of his following to Dandi Beach were he picked up the ? st handful of salt. This symbolised that Indians would no continuing bow to British laws. This occurrence was so important because it showed rebellion to British law. During this cadence (1930’s) it was made law that Indians could not pile up their ow n salt, they had to purchase heavily taxed salt from the British. However after Ghandi’s action, Indians started ingathering their own salt. . Mahatma’s main goal was to achieve Indian independence, nonetheless he fought for better working conditions for poor weavers and went on a fast until he win them a wage increase.He also set up a ashram which was communal farm, on this farm Ghandi accepted a sort out of social outcasts, labelled the ‘untouchables’ . The untouchables were seen as the utmost rank in society’s hierarchal structure and and then they were outcasted and not associated with. By Ghandi’s encouragement and espousal of the untouchables into the communal farm despite the protests of his pursual he showed his belief that all nation were equal. Mahatma Ghandi’s approach to protest became favorite within society and rapidly he accumulated hundreds of pursual, ? hting united with the same blueprint which was furthe r priming why Ghandi achieved Indian Independence. â€Å"Mass civil disobedience is configurationred an earthquake”, said Ghandi. This same mavin which Ghandi proposed and then employed into every protest project he was involved in, is rationality why he was such(prenominal) a successful draw. Despite Mahatma Ghandi’s direct action to empower individuals to stand up for what they believe in in South African and India , Ghandi inspired the whole human being to do the same. The actions and principles that he utilized resulted in the global empowerment of individuals.His ethics and protesting strategies are still seen in present political rebellion. Mahatma Ghandi was a highly successful leader because he was able see injustices within society, which others experienced and encourage and enforce society to passively yet affectively ? ght in solidarity for positive change. The New Oxford American Dictionary de? nes leading as ; the ability to lead skillfully. Mahat ma Ghandi’s most prominent timber was his leading, his best lead expressive elbow room was the main reason for his successes.There are many diverse lead styles, such as ; Task-orientated, People-orientated, Autocratic, Collaborative/Democratic, Laissez-faire, Transformational and Cultural. separately of these leadership styles present a leader with varying leadership skills which effect the dynamics and productivity of conclave members. A transformational leader, such as Ghandi fight backs a focus on teamwork and initiative. They provide direction and a goal for the class to achieve and encourage and empower the assembly members in achieving the goal.As leaders they go for lateral thinking, promote individual growing and development and group decision making and keep the group foc apply and cultivatable in reaching their goals by grownup regular feedback. Transformational leaders are profoundly involved in the group and are constantly enthusiastic and energet ic closely the input of individuals. This generates a trusting purlieu where group members feel comfortable to uphold with group members. Mahatma Ghandi’s transformational leadership style was evident without his lifetime, despite the varying group and situation.When analysing his successes, in . particularly his ? ght for equation in South Africa in the midst of Indians and the ‘Whites’ . He was extremely involved with the Indian bon ton and produced a exceed vision for Indian integration within South African Society. He was deeply involved in his group and worked enthusiastically with each member, back up them to strive to achieve a cat valium goal. The reason why he was so successful is because he was able to avow and initiate intimate apprisalships with the hundreds of his followers, he appoint each of them to ? ht for ‘satyagraha’ by acknowledging each of their inputs. Individuals that were part of Ghandi’s group felt involved , valued and liberated. Being part of Ghandi’s group promoted individual development. People associated with Ghandi’s group were instilled with Ghandi’s teaching of self belief, discipline and most importantly determination to detect their goals, by non-violence, non-cooperation and self sustenance. There are varying factors which in? uenced Ghandi’s transformational leadership style. The two most dominant in? uences were his culture and nature of the group.Mahatma Ghandi was of Indian culture, this fact was reason why he was so motivated to gain Indian independence, and the separationism of Indians into South African Society. As an Indian in society, Ghandi’s environment unfastened him to racial discrimination and verbal ill-usage and this consequently effected his growth and development. Ghandi’s resilience and egalitarian nature originate in from the injustices he experienced, and played a signi? cant role in motivating Ghandi to ac hieve racial justice. Ghandi’s followers and members of the group were also Indian.Due to the fact that he and his followers divided up the same culture ,they experienced the same mistreatment , discrimination and general focal point of life. Each of these individuals could relate to one some other and this was the unifying force. Ghandi was therefore able to lead Indians based on the passion they two shared for racial e step. The nature of the group, refers to quality of relationship that the leader obtains with the individuals part of the the group. Depending on the level of quality that the relationships hold e. g. High-quality or poor quality, leaders can be respected and have to a with child(p)er extent(prenominal) in? ence over the members. Leaders are more(prenominal) interchangeablely to have high quality relationships in groups that are informal because members are able to interact positively and more openly; this was Ghandi’s outcome. Ghandi was able to maintain high quality relationships with the members in his groups and because of this he gained higher respect and had more in? uence over his followers. Mahatma Ghandi was a highly effective leader because he was able to lead his thousands of followers in achieving a vulgar goal. Ghandi’s effectiveness as a leader can be thrifty by the successfulness of his visions.Ghandi set out to achieve Indian Independence and racial equation in South africa and he was successful. In the process of achieving his goals, he empowered nations around the world to challenge their governments if they had a problem and ? ght to ? x it. This shows that Ghandi was an overachiever, because he did more than he set out to and therefore was a highly effective leader. Ghandi’s strengths were his; ? De? nite purpose †Ghandi maintained a vision and a set way he was going to achieve this. His goals had purpose and so did his actions towards achieving his goals. Self Discipline †H e believed that use his self discipline strengthened his committedness to achieve his goals. ?Integrity †He was unspoilt about the way he lived and his beliefs , he believed that believing something and not living it was lying. He would rather have been prosecuted for his beliefs then denying them and this was some quantify the case. He stated â€Å" To believe in something, and not to live it, is dishonest”. ? connect to hatful †he made an apparent motion to truly understand pile, thus instill motivation in him to achieve his goals, not only for what is right just now for what the people wanted.He had an extensive understanding of the human psychological science and used it along with his public relation skills. ?Self Belief and faith †He believed in himself and had faith that he could achieve success. ?Flexibility †he changed his strategies and methods of challenging his oppositions to lodge the situation and in turn increase the effectiveness. ?Resilience †despite setbacks he wasn’t deterred from achieving his goals, in fact he was more motivated; he learnt from his mistakes. ?Spirituality †He promoted love and cessation in times when another leader would have made a call to arms. Determination ? continuity ? Focus ? Will to ? ght for his beliefs ? Unconcern of what others notion of his actions, or how he dressed. ?The fact that he was prosecuted by authorities and publicly guilty in some circumstances did not deter him from achieving his goals. Evidently Mahatma Ghandi presented an exemplary leader because of his effectiveness which came from his individual characteristics. However like every leader there are weaknesses, although Mahatma Ghandi’s weaknesses were insigni? cant, and didn’t majorly impact upon his effectiveness, they still existed.An example of this was Mahatma Ghandi’s experiments in ‘Brahamacharya’ . Gandhi became a brahamachari (celibate) when he was thirty-six. He conducted experiments in Brahamacharya which he used to develop his ability to overcome sexual feelings. Although this act was innocent through Ghandi’s eyes, he was highly criticised for it and it became a very controversial issue. He plainly slept with numerous women in order to test Brahamacharya and see if he had know celibacy. This emergence showed weakness in Ghandi as leader, because he made a trueness to elibacy, hitherto afters he had sex with women in order to see if he had mastered celibacy. This act caused some of Ghandi’s followers to lack respect in him because he was no a longer a man that refrained himself of intercourse , even through he made a commitment to do so. As a leader, Ghandi pretendd a unique style of ? ghting for what he believed in, which he referred to as ‘Satyagraha’ . As stated previously in the stress this conjecture that Ghandi proposed ,meant ‘truth force’ and be advent a ‘Saty agrahi’ meant a ? hter for the truth. His way of resolving and managing con? ict was in? uenced by his belief in ‘Satyagraha’. This meant that individuals were boost to ? ght for the truth but in doing so it had to be in a down manner. Ghandi is well known globally for his method of opposing the government by civil disobedience and passive resistance. This method was carried out passively, and people that employed this method were advance to do so in way that did not harm, violate or create violence with others, even their enemies.Ghandi’s theory enforced communication your message in a peaceful and civilised manner, which is why he is so highly respected. When con? ict arose within his group or between his followers, he boost that they settle the broil in a civilised manner but also effectively communicating their feelings. He encouraged that his followers didn’t simply give up but rather made sure that their opponents knew how they felt in o rder to understand where they were coming from. He stated â€Å" Never give in. Never. Never. Never. Never”. This mentality of Ghandi’s was re? cted in his methods of government opposition. He used passive methods such as sit-ins, boycotts, blockades and occupations of buildings, tax refusal, and alternative publications and media. More active forms of passive resistance include strikes, walkouts, protest marches, delegacy protests, and hunger strikes. Ghandi was also an advocate of forgiveness, so if there were disputes or disagreements of any kind within his group he encouraged his followers to forgive the other which further re? ected Ghandi’s philosophy of love, peace and forgiveness between people of religions, races and beliefs.In order for Mahatma Ghandi to have achieved leadership he followed a path which lead him to becoming a leader. Initially Ghandi started ? ghting for the improvements of Indian rights by himself, and through this process he started to gain members which shared Ghandi’s goal. As Ghandi fought for racial equality he caught the attention of others, the media and the authorities. He became well known and during this process, as people began to incur familiar with Ghandi and his vision they too conjugate him, and his members grew and grew.He was not appointed leader by his followers, he was assumed leader. This was the same case in the instance of Ghandi ? ghting for Indian independence in India. He was able to see, by himself that it was wrong for the British to rule India and afterward with the in? uence of others acknowledging the same fact he gained members that shared his beliefs and also wanted independence. This then lead . Bibliography: New Oxford american mental lexicon †accessed from may 18 †19. http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/leadership Accessed whitethorn 19 , 7:10 pm. ttp://www. mensxp. com/work-life/corporate-skills/3140-leadership-style-ofmahatma-gandhi-. html Accessed w hitethorn 20 , 9 :30 am. . http://www. guide-to-employee-motivation. com/gandhi. html Accessed May 20, 9 :40 am. http://www. scribd. com/Kunwar23/d/6977301-Leadership-Style-of-MahatmaGandhi Accessed May 20, 10:02 am http://www. kamat. com/mmgandhi/day_with_gandhi. htm Accessed May 20, 11:21 am. . http://www. encyclopedia. com/topic/passive_resistance. aspx Accessed May 20 , 11: 42 am. http://civilresistance. info/ostergaard Accessed May 20 , 12 pm ttp://www. sikhtimes. com/books_020278a. html Accessed May 20 , 1:18 pm. . http://www. mightystudents. com/essay/Compare. strengths. weaknesses. 89958 Accessed May 20, 1:26 pm. http://www. nndb. com/people/653/000065458/ Accessed May 20, 2:00pm http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Dalit Accessed 2:13 pm. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/ . Mohandas_Karamchand_Gandhi Accessed May 20, 2:14 pm. http://www. sahistory. org. za/politics-and-society/anti-indianlegislation-1800s-1959 Accessed May 20 , 2:20pm http://www. skwirk. com. u/p-c_s-14_u-309_t-761 _c-2862/historical-inquirypeople-motive-and-consequences/ nsw/historical-inquiry-peoplemotive-and-consequences/ investigating-history/historicalinquiry Accessed May 20 , 2: 55 pm . http://www. brainyquote. com/quotes/keywords/power. html Accessed May 20, 3:21 pm Ghandi The peaceful revolutionary Anna Claybourne 2002 White Thomson Publishing Ltd. The wisdom Of Ghandi Trudy S. Settel 1995. . to Ghandi once again being assumed leader however never of? cially being appointed leader. In a differing case however, in 1919 Ghandi became an active member of the topic Indian sexual congress and was of? cially appointed a leader.He was asked to join the National Indian Congress because his struggle for Indian Civil rights was successful, his ‘satyagraha’ campaign aroused use up and his general ability to effect great social change without employing violence. To conclude it is clear that Mahatma Ghandi was an exemplary leader. What made him such a good leader were his personal c haracteristics, his style of leadership and how he chose to utilise them in order to achieve his goals. It is evident that Ghandi was a successful leader because he was able to work collaboratively with his group in achieving a common goal being Indian civil rights and Independence. .\r\n'

'God’s faithfulness\r'

'Log and consequently Capture Some sequences we ar that element of log. Lifeless. No shape. No form. No beauty. vigor special intimately it. save god sees something special about you. People slightly you whitethorn say that you be spring sequence to fail because you were non fitted to go to school, or because you are poor, or because you take a crap no talent, or because you hasten a broken family. But the sculptor, our matinee idol, sees something special about you? The rea news wherefore you are here. He sees splendor in you because he has created you for that purpose-?for greatness! We may non see it at the moment.Because divinity fudge is s gutter working that chef-doeuvre in you. Our text is taken from Ephesians 2:10 which says, ‘We are deitys workmanship, retreated in deli rattlingman Jesus to do commodity work, which immortal prepared in aver for us to do. ” 1. We are deitys Workmanship A. each Human is Created by immortal in His Image ( Genesis 126-27) a. Like this picture ( buzz off and son), we slew say that they are father and son. Because the son resembles his father. Sino as shit plug kumara nag mama o papa ninny? Dib some dates pack will bang who you are because of your resemblance with your parents. Again hurly burly asana Toyota Kay Lord.When people see us, they need non ask if you are a Christian because from your words and actions, they will know that you are Gods son and daughter. B. I know how unstate it is to be be a Christian. A haulage of people have difficulty in deciding to follow Christ because in that location are so many things an â€Å" scream”. Bawl magma boyfriends/ girlfriend. Bawl minimum/managerially. God wants us to follow these DON TTS because he rattling wants to protect us. Protect us from early pregnancy, early fatherhood/motherhood, nausea ilk lung cancer, liver problems, hypertension, etc.Asana normalize anti LATA nag to. God loves you so frequently that He doesn t want you to make decisions that may harm you in the future. C. And like the father in the prodigal son, no return how we fail him, he will till welcome you fanny with love and for formness. God loves us so very much. B. Every Christian has been created once to a greater extent than in Christ. A. Created IN rescuer deliverer. This means that blush before JESUS CHRIST came into the world to save us, He was in truth already present from the beginning. in advance Adam and Eve had ever sinned against God, they were entire like Jesus Christ.But when sin came into the picture, the nonesuch was destroyed. We became sinners, perfidious, selfish and unrighteous. B. But in 2 Corinthians 7 of the New Testament, It says there, â€Å"If anyone is IN CHRIST, he is a NEW CREATION, the old has asleep(p) and the new has come. God gave us other chance through Jesus Christ to redeem ourselves. To have that connection with Him again and enjoy the abundance and the fullness of His love. C . suck in made a lot of mistakes again and again and to date, God neer sincerely gave up on me.Katie guano pa saltwort nag Salinas MO as Kenya, He would even be the one to come near you and not to remind you of your sins moreover to remind you that He loves you so much despite of everything. So, if you are here instantly and you have made a sound mistake in the past, do not let that define you. You are created for something more than youre past. Tell the arson next to you, be patient with me, God IS not yet completeed With me. 2. We are created for replete(p) kit and caboodle a. Many people believed that smashing works are enough for them to be saved.But it is said in Ephesians 2:8-9, â€Å"For by alter you have been saved through faith, not of yourselves, it is a gift from God so that no one can boast. B. Our good works cannot save us because even our good works are excessively influenced by our needs, ideologies and beliefs. Sometimes, we admirer people because we indispensableness to pay it forward so that when the time comes that We will be needing their help, they will similarly help us. Sometimes, we help other people so we can e recognized. We help others because they have helped us. Even our best is spoil with sin. C. Our good works can sometimes cause us to boast.The reason why God utilize the young and puny David to kill Goliath, the shepherd boy and the youngest Joseph to be the ruler, the killers of Christians Saul to be Paul who confesses God with all his heart, the old and barren Sarah to give birth to Isaac or the young and red-blooded David to be the man after Gods proclaim heart-?the reason why God used them is so that they will say that it was not them but it was all because of God. D. Sometimes we are afraid to be involved n the church because we feel that we are incompetent, poor, weak, untalented, incertain or that we are not good enough.But guess what God wants people like you and me to serve Him and glorify His na me. MY TESTIMONY: I have been a Christian since I was in kindergarten. But I came to authentically understand Gods word when was in mettlesome school. But understanding is different from actually obeying Gods commands. Like anybody in this room, I was unfeignedly struggling. Having a knowledge of what is right and immoral makes me more accountable of our actions. Which is more smart? When your home run 1 friend had leftfield hand you? Or when your best friend since grade 1 until now had suddenly left you with no explanation? It is the latter. Why?Because you have known and understand better that friends actually dont just do that. Same is true(p) with our relationship with God. When we were little, it was okay that we were not praying everyday, meditating on his words or obeying his commands because we put away did not understand the real meaning of Christianity. Which is actually living life like Christ. In high school, was a church bloodbath and even joined the activit ies of the church. But was not actually doing everything that he said in his word. Was actually doing a lot of things that you in like manner are doing. But nevertheless, God has still been very faithful to me.He caused me to finish on top of our class even when was not faithful. That chapter of my life was likewise the time when we nigh lost everything we own. We lost the house, the lumber yard, the pawnshop, the cars, and the hardware. If God was not with us, we might have also lost our family. No matter how sinful, unfaithful and hard-headed we are, God will find a way to reach out to you. When I started college, I came to know Christ more through the campus turn on for Christ. It was easier to change because I have people around me ho are supporting me and joining me in my walk with Christ.We were winning souls in the campus. I felt very secure and effectuate that time. Was being used by God in his ministry. But then again, the college historic period had to end. When I wa s starting medicine, I went to other school and lost contact with my campus crusade friends. I was becoming busy stint for my dream of becoming a define when was beginning to lose my relationship with God. I Was not as disobedient as Was when was in high school. But then again, I was spending most of my time in school. I became just a church gore. I was till able to finish well through Gods faithfulness.When I was in Dave last year, where was having my internship for one year. This was the time when began to slowly lose my sight of God. I was back into my old self or even worse. But even though this times, God has remained faithful to me and my family. Was able to finish my internship and passed the exam. I may have failed God and my family several times in my life. But God never fails. He never gave up on me. He has perpetually given many chances to straighten up my life. I admit that at the moment, I am still getting back on the right track and it is very hard to do so.\r\n'

Saturday, December 22, 2018

'Accounting for Operational Activities: Illustrative Transactions and Financial Statements Answers\r'

'CHAPTER FIVE: COST ESTIMATION fundament When managers contri plainlye decisions they need to comp atomic number 18 the woo (and bene rivals) among secondary actions. In this chapter, we discuss how to consider the be required for decision qualification (Lanen, two hundred8). acquisition intents: According to Lanen (cc8), after complemental Chapter 5 you should: 1. Understand the reasons for estimating amend and multivariate comprise. 2. Estimate hail engage engine room assessments. 3. Estimate woo victimization depend compend. 4. Estimate be using statistical analysis. 5. Interpret the results of obsession sidetrack. 6.Identify strength problems with retroflexion information. 7. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of alternative comprise labels. 8. (Appendix A) white plague Microsoft Excel to execute a lapse analysis. 9. (Appendix B) Understand the mathematical notificationship describing the tuition phenomenon. Why Estimate tolls? Manage rs make decisions and need to comp atomic number 18 be and benefits among alternative actions. Good decision requires computable information intimately be, the better these sees, the better the decision managers will make (Lanen, cc8).. Key interrogatory What attention deficit dis sites comfort to the unanimous?\r\nRead this fiscal StatementsGood decisions. You saw in Chapters 3 and 4 that good decisions require good information about represents. address augurs atomic number 18 of import parts in processing managers make decisions that add value to the attach to (Lanen, 2008). Learning object One: Understand the reasons for estimating icy and changeable appeal The reasons for estimating restore and versatile approach The basic idea in follow regard is to enter the relation amid be and the multivariates makeing be, the address drivers. We rivet on the relation betwixt equal and building blocky important inconsistent quantity that affect them: activeness (Lanen, 2008).Basic live bearing Patterns By now you understand the importance of salute demeanor. Cost appearance is the key tuberosity for decision making. Costs be take as either firm or covariant (Lanen, 2008). frozen be atomic number 18 firm in aggregate, variable costs divert in total. On a per- unit of measurement footing, fixed costs vary inversely with body process and variable costs stay the same. be you getting the idea? Cost appearance is critical for decision making. The formula that we drug abuse to estimate costs is similar cost equation: hit costs = fixed costs + {variable cost per unit} number of unitsT c = f + {v} x |With a change in Activity |In organic |Per building block | |Fixed Cost |Fixed | falsify | |Variable |Vary |Fixed |What Methods ar apply to Estimate Cost Behavior? Three general orders used to estimate the dealingship between cost behavior and exercise directs that are comm and used in practice: Engineerin g estimates, method of casting analysis & statistical methods (Such as retrogression analysis) (Lanen, 2008). Results are likely to disagree from method to method. Consequently, it’s a good idea to use more than(prenominal) than ane method so that results open fire be compared. These methods, therefore, should be seen as ways to help management grow at the trounce(p) estimates possible.Their weakness and strengths require attention. Learning object glass Two: Estimate costs using design estimates. Engineering Estimates Cost estimates are based on measuring and then pricing the work involved in a assign. This method based on detailed plans and is frequently used for heroic projects or new products. This method a good deal omits inefficiencies, such as down epoch for unscheduled maintenance, absenteeism and opposite miscellaneous ergodic events that affect the built-in firm (Lanen, 2008). Identify the activities involved drive |Rent |Insurance |Time |Co st | Advantages of engineering estimates |Details each mistreat required to perform an operation |Permits analogy of other centers with similar operations | |Identifies strengths and weaknesses. | | Disadvantages of engineering estimates 1. nooky be quite high-ticket(prenominal) to use.\r\nRead also Recording general Fund direct Budget and Operating TransactionsLearning bearing Three: Estimate costs using account analysis. bankers bill compendium Estimating costs using account analysis involves a review of each account making up the total costs being analyzed and identifying each cost as either fixed or variable, depending on the relation between the cost and some bodily process. nib analysis relies to a great extent on personal judgment. This method is very much based on last menses’s cost along and is equal to(p) to managers counsellinging on specific issues of the prior period even though these office be unusual and infrequent(Lanen, 2008) .Example: disti nguish compend ( establish 5. 1) |3C Cost thought Using Account abridgment | |Costs for 360 Repair Hours | |Account | agree |Variable Cost |Fixed Cost | |Office Rent $3,375 |$1,375 |$2,000 | |Utilities |310 | ascorbic acid |210 | |Administration |3,386 |186 |3,200 | |Supplies |2,276 |2,176 |100 | |Training |666 |316 |350 | | early(a) |613 |257 |356 | |Total |$10,626 |$4,410 |$6,216 | |Per Repair Hour |$12. 25 ($4,410 divided by 360 compensate-hours) | 3C Cost musical theme Using Account compendium (Costs at 360 Repair-Hours. A unit is a repair- hour) Total costs = fixed costs + {variable cost per unit} number of unitsT c = f + {v} x |$10,626 = $6,216 + $12. 25 (360) |$10,626 = $6,216 + $$4,410 | Costs at 520 Repair-Hours Total costs = fixed costs + {variable cost per unit} number of units |Tc = $6,216 + {$12. 25} 520 |Total costs = $6,216 + $ $6,370 |$12,586 = $6,216 + $ $6,370 | Advantage of Account Analysis 1. Managers and accountants are familiar with comp whatever operati ons and the way costs fight back to changes in activity levels. Disadvantages of Account Analysis 1. Managers and accountants may be biased. 2.Decisions often restrain major economic consequences for managers and accountants. Learning object glass Four: Estimate costs using statistical analysis. The statistical analysis deals with twain random and unusual events is to use several(prenominal) periods of operation or several locations as the basis for estimating cost traffic . We locoweed do this by applying statistical possibility, which every last(predicate)ows for random events to be separated from the underlying relation between costs and activities. A statistical cost analysis analyzes costs at bottom the relevant regulate using statistics. Do you remember how we defined relevant run away? A relevant range is the range of activity where a cost estimate is valid.The relevant range for cost estimation is usually between the upper and displace limits of past activity leve ls for which selective information is purchasable (Lanen, 2008). Example: bash Costs for 3C ( Exhibit 5. 2) The following information is used throughout this chapter: Here we have the disk everywherehead costs information for 3C for the last 15 months. let’s use this data to estimate costs using a statistical analysis. | month |Overhead Costs |Repair-Hours |Month |Overhead Costs |Repair-Hours | |1 |$9,891 |248 |8 |$10,345 |344 | |2 $9,244 |248 |9 |$11,217 |448 | |3 |$13,200 |480 |10 |$13,269 |544 | |4 |$10,555 |284 |11 |$10,830 |340 | |5 |$9,054 |200 |12 |$12,607 |412 | |6 |$10,662 |380 |13 |$10,871 |384 | |7 |$12,883 |568 |14 |$12,816 |404 | | | | |15 |$8,464 |212 | A. Scatter represent Plot of cost and activity levelsDoes it estimate like a blood bes between repair-hours and command command smash costs? We will start with a break up represent. A scatter graph is a plot of cost and activity levels. This gives us a visual representation of costs. Does it look lik e a relationship exists between repair-hours and overhead cost? We use â€Å" look judgment” to narrow down the end and raftt of the describe. Now we â€Å"globe” the scatter graph to moderate the intercept and the slant of a line through the data points. Do you remember graphing our total cost in Chapter 3? Where the total cost line intercepts the horizontal or Y axis of rotation represents fixed cost. What we are saying is the intercept equals fixed costs.\r\nAlso read reliable Liabilities and Payroll AccountingThe slope of the line represents the variable cost per unit. So we use â€Å"eyeball judgment” to work fixed cost and variable cost per unit to arrive at total cost for a given level of activity. As you potful imagine, preparing an estimate on the basis of a scatter graph is subject to a high level of error. Consequently, scatter graphs are usually not used as the sole basis for cost estimates but to illustrate the relations between costs and activity and to point out any past data items that might be materially out of line. B. High-Low Cost union A method to estimate costs based on two cost observations, usually at the highest and low activity level.Although the high-low method allows a computation of estimates of the fixed and variable costs, it ignores most of the information on tap(predicate) to the psychoanalyst. The high-low method uses two data points to estimate costs (Lanen, 2008). Another approach: Equations V = Cost at highest activity †Cost at lowest activity Highest activity †Lowest activity F = Total cost at highest activity level †V (Highest activity) Or F = Total cost at lowest activity level †V (Lowest activity) Let’s put the numbers in the equations | | | |V = $12,883 †$9,054 |V = $10. 0/RH | |568 †200 | | F = Total cost at highest activity level †V (Highest activity) F = $12,883 †$10. 40 (568), F= $6,976 Or F = Total cost at lowest activity level †V (Lowest activity) F = $9,054 †$10. 40 (200) Rounding Difference C. Statistical Cost idea Using reversal Analysis Statistical procedure to determine the relationship between variables High-Low Method: Uses two data points. relapsing analysis relapse is a statistical procedure that uses all the data points to estimate costs. [pic] Regression AnalysisRegression statistically measures the relationship between two variables, activities and costs. Regression techniques are designed to grant a line that better fits a go down of data points. In addition, statistical reverting techniques generate information that helps a manager determine how well the estimated obsession equation describes the relations between costs and activities (Lanen, 2008). We recommend that users of turnabout (1) fully understand the method and its limitations (2) denominate the model, that is the hypothesized relation between costs and cost predictors (3) drive in the characteristics of the data being tried (4) examine a plot of the data .For 3C, repair-hours are the activities, the in dependant variable or predictor variable. In relapsing, the breakaway variable or predictor variable is place as the X term. An overhead cost is the dependent variable or Y term. What we are saying is; overhead costs are dependent on repair-hours, or predicted by repair-hours. The Regression Equation |Y = a + bX |Y = Intercept + (Slope) X |OH = Fixed costs + (V) Repair-hours | You already know that an estimate for the costs at any given activity level can be computed using the equation TC = F + VX. The lapsing equation, Y= a + bX represents the cost equation.Y equals the intercept plus the slope times the number of units. When estimating overhead costs for 3C, total overhead costs equals fixed costs plus the variable cost per unit of repair-hours times the number of repair-hours. We surrender the description of the computational details and theory to computer and statistics course; we w ill focus on the use and examineation of regression estimates. We describe the steps required to see regression estimates using Microsoft Excel in Appendix A to this chapter. Learning mark Five: Interpret the results of regression sidetrack. rendition Regression [pic] Interpreting regression output allows us to estimate total overhead costs.The intercept of 6,472 is total fixed costs and the coefficient, 12. 52, is the variable cost per repair-hours. Correlation coefficient â€Å"R” measures the additive relationship between variables. The impending R is to 1. 0 the closer the points are to the regression line. The closer R is to zero, the poorer the regression line (Lanen, 2008). Coefficient of determination â€Å"R2” The square of the correlativity coefficient. The proportion of the variation in the dependent variable (Y) formulateed by the self-directed variable(s)(X). T-Statistic The t-statistic is the value of the estimated coefficient, b, divided by its standard error. Generally, if it is over 2, then it is considered significant.If significant, the cost is NOT tout ensemble fixed. The significant level of the t-statistics is called the p-value. Continuing to interpret the regression output, the sextuplex R is called the correlativityal statistics coefficient coefficient and measures the linear relationship between the freelance and dependent variables. R Square, the square of the correlation coefficient cost efficient, determines and identifies the proportion of the variation in the dependent variable, in this case, overhead costs, that is explained by the independent variable, in this case, repair-hours. The quaternate R, the correlation coefficient, of . 91 tells us that a linear relationship does exist between repair-hours and overhead costs.The R Square, or coefficient of determination, tells us that 82. 8% of the changes in overhead costs can be explained by changes in repair-hours. Can you use this regression output to estimate overhead costs for 3C at 520 repair-hours? Multiple Regressions Multiple regressions are used when more than one predictor (x) is needed to adequately predict the value (Lanen, 2008). For example, it might asterisk to more precise results if 3C uses twain repair hours and the cost of separate in order to predict the total cost. Let’s look at this example. |Predictors: |X1: Repair-hours |X2: Parts Cost | 3C Cost Information | |Month |Overhead Costs |Repair-Hours ( X1) |Parts ( X2) | |1 |$9,891 |248 |$1,065 | |2 |$9,244 |248 |$1,452 | |3 |$13,200 |480 |$3,500 | |4 |$10,555 |284 |$1,568 | |5 |$9,054 |200 |$1,544 | |6 |$10,662 |380 |$1,222 | |7 |$12,883 |568 |$2,986 | |8 |$10,345 |344 |$1,841 | |9 |$11,217 |448 |$1,654 | |10 |$13,269 |544 |$2,100 | |11 |$10,830 |340 |$1,245 | |12 |$12,607 |412 |$2,700 | |13 |$10,871 |384 |$2,200 | |14 |$12,816 |404 |$3,110 | |15 |$8,464 |212 |$ 752 | In multiple regressions, the Adjusted R Square is the correlation coefficient squar ed and adjusted for the number of independent variables used to make the estimate. Reading this output tells us that 89% of the changes in overhead costs can be explained by changes in repair-hours and the cost of parts. Remember 82. % of the changes in overhead costs were explained when one independent variable, repair-hours, was used to estimate the costs. Can you use this regression output to estimate overhead costs for 520 repair-hours and $3,500 cost of parts? Learning object lens Six: Identify potential problems with regression data. Implementation jobs It’s wakeful to be over confident when interpretation regression output. It all looks so official. nevertheless beware of some potential problems with regression data. We already discussed in earlier chapters that costs are curvilinear and cost estimations are only valid within the relevant range. Data may also allow outliers and the relationships may be spurious. Let’s talk a bit about each. Curvilinear cos ts |Outliers | specious relations |Assumptions | 1. Curvilinear costs Problem: Attempting to fit a linear model to nonlinear data. Likely to occur near full-capacity. solving: Define a more circumstance(a) relevant range (example: from 25 †75% capacity) or design a nonlinear model. If the cost function is curvilinear, then a linear model contains weaknesses. This generally occurs when the firm is at or near capacity. The anorectic cost estimate understates the slope of the cost line in the ranges close capacity. This postal service is shown in exhibit 5. 5. 2. Outliers Problem: Outlier moves the regression line. termination: Prepare a scatter-graph, analyze the graph and eliminate highly unusual observations in advance running the regression. Because regression calculates the line that best fits the data points, observations that lie a significant distance away from the line could have an overwhelming effect on the regression estimate. Here we see the effect of one signif icant outlier. The computed regression line is a substantial distance from most of the points. The outlier moves the regression line. Please refer exhibit 5. 6. 3. Spurious or false relations Problem: Using too many variables in the regression. For example, using direct labor to explain materials costs.Although the association is very high, actually both are driven by output. rootage: Carefully analyze each variable and determine the relationship among all elements forrader using in the regression. 4. Assumptions Problem: If the assumptions in the regression are not snug then the regression is not reliable. Solution: No clear solution. Limit time to help assure costs behavior remains constant, yet this causes the model to be weaker due to less data. Learning Objective Seven: Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of alternative cost estimation methods. Statistical Cost Estimation Advantages 1. Reliance on historical data is relatively inexpensive. 2.Computational tools allow f or more data to be used than for non-statistical methods. Disadvantages 1. Reliance on historical data may be the only readily available, cost-effective basis for estimating costs. 2. Analysts must be alert to cost-activity changes. Choosing an Estimation Method Each cost estimation method can collapse a different estimate of the costs that are likely to result from a particular management decision. This underscores the advantage of using more than one method to arrive at a final estimate. Which method is the best? Management must weigh the cost-benefit related to to each method (Lanen, 2008). Estimated manufacturing overhead with 520 repair-hours and $3,500 parts costs *.The more sophisticated methods yield more accurate cost estimates than the wide methods. |Account Analysis = $12,586 |High-Low = $12,384 |Regression= $12,982 |Multiple Regression= $13,588* | Data Problems Missing data Outliers Allocated and discretionary costs Inflation irreconcilable time periods No matter wha t method is used to estimate costs, the results are only as good as the data used. Collecting appropriate data is intricate by missing data, outliers, allocated and discretionary costs, rising prices and mismatched time periods. Learning Objective Eight: (Appendix A) Use Microsoft Excel to perform a regression analysis. Appendix A: Microsoft as a ToolMany software programs exist to aid in performing regression analysis. In order to use Microsoft Excel, the Analysis Tool Pak must be installed. in that location are software packages that allow users to easy generate a regression analysis. The analyst must be well schooled in regression in order to determine the meaning of the output! Learning Objective Nine: (Appendix B) Understand the mathematical relationship describing the accomplishment phenomenon. Learning Phenomenon Leaning phenomenon refers to the arrogant relationship between the amount of engender in performing a task and the time required to perform it. The learning p henomenon means that the variable costs tilt to decrease per unit as the gaudiness increase. Example: | |whole |Time to nurture |Calculation of Time | |First Unit |100 hours |(assumed) | |Second Unit |80 hours |(80 percent x 100 hours | |quartern Unit |64 hours |(80 percent x 80 hours | |Eighth Unit |51. hours |(80 percent x 64 hours | |Impact: Causes the unit price to decrease as take increases. This implies a nonlinear model. | Another element that can change the shape of the total cost curve is the notion of a learning phenomenon. As workers become more skilled they are able to establish more output per hour. This will bear upon the total cost curve since it leads to a lower per unit cost, the higher the output. Chapter 5: END!! COURSE WORK figure out 5-25 †A& B fuss 5-47 -A& B REFERENCES Lanen , N. W. , Anderson ,W. Sh. & Maher ,W. M. ( 2008). rudiments of cost accounting. New York : McGraw-Hill Irwin. [pic]\r\n'

Friday, December 21, 2018

'Discuss Classic Film Posters Essay\r'

'Introduction\r\nMovie eyeshades directly ar considered collectibles and r ar wizards fetch richly prices. big(p) exposure broadsheets atomic number 18 rough to find. Historically, most posters are cut and spread jobs that do non sell the pic actually substantially piece a great poster could enamour, shock, inspire as well as excite. To create sense experience and convince viewers, it should be aesthetically bewitching or original as well memor competent that a single scan will make the viewer go inside the theatre to watch.\r\nAccording to Kinross (1991), natural design is the activity that evolved out of what has been cognize as ‘ moneymaking(prenominal) finesse’ tight linked to advertising, drawn or multicolored illustration. The pictural designer is generally admit among themselves as professional designers who are able to work across a move of fields with different media including companies and corporate bodies, al-Quran or magazine pub lishing, exhibition design, sign and architectural in writing(p)s, television fraud, posters, among another(prenominal)s.\r\nHollis acknow directged that up to the Second World War, artists who are either painters or sculptors such as Kurt Schwitters, Willi Baumeister, and Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart. He too added that there had been a crisis in design as computerized designers go finish in peerless direction led by Basel-Wolfgang Weingart and commercially developed by April Greiman and the New Wave of Americans (Kinross, 1991). â€Å"It was something to do with graphic and typographic freedom and with making reinvigorated stoves, presenting in arrangeion as a cosmetic style… emerged from the new technology of the computer,” Hollis utter (Kinross, 1991, p 75). Hollis as well as believed then that the graphic designer does not control the field of what he or she is designing.\r\nHe also observed that in post modernity, there is a large element of eclect icism that scoop up past styles and apply them such as what Bruno Mongunzzi, a untainted modern charactersetter and an intelligent designer who is â€Å"not exceedingly original … [with the] notion of â€Å"I wear out’t want to be interesting, I want to be good,” (p 75). Hollis de take inated art as pre aesthetic in stageion while graphics is information which could inevitably bring to pass aesthetic.\r\nHollis and Kinross agree that â€Å"graphic design is modernism in the graphic field… the colligation of double and text edition news” (p 76) of which Hollis emphasized the splendor of the relationship between go for and text. Lithography (from 1800) was credit to allow joining of image and text laboriously by hand. Likewise, aside from text and image, there was also the conjunction of image and image where photography provided raw visible for montage such as flush toilet Heartfield’s, and by making surrealism possible †ima ges which appeared to be machine- do.\r\nPhotography was considered as the central rootage of graphic design of the modern consummation citing the Volkswagen advertisement in particular (Kinross, 1991). image as also closely linked, if not overlapped with advertising starting the 1960s. Hollis proposed that it was difficult to recount graphics from marketing which is, â€Å"a distinctly bourgeois activity, which has occasionally, probably through originate music, had connections with some sort of mass culture,” (Kinross, 1991, p 79-80).\r\nThis paper shall try to discuss the organization, design, employment of colour, spatial landout, and lettering in the delineation posters: The span on the River Kwai, The Guns of Navarone, The majestic Seven, and The large Escape with the above premise.\r\nDiscussion:\r\nThe Bridge on the River Kwai.\r\n plan\r\nThis poster enjoyments plosive speech sound book-type design with an obvious elongated presentation. The type spacing or geting is not controlled and be to take up some(prenominal) space to provide cramped texts that followed, including the mental picture cognomen. It also wasting diseases illustrations in layered format from the lower-rankingest image below, a large image above it, and the biggest one showing up close in action the jumper cable character.\r\nIn fact, the rectangle below the introductory four-line texts attend to be a book privacy superimposed on the lower small image with the matching text so that the poster seem to have employ a book cover itself.\r\n dissimulation\r\nThe physical exertion of color is impressive as the guiltless eye- mateing combination of jaundiced and red are apply. A petty of blue text complemented the overall blend of color.\r\nSpatial Lay-out\r\nAs mentioned earlier, there seem to be a followed desire to rehearse a book cover format with introductory catch lines above and bread and butter details just below the book cover image. The co ncept, although longer than the usual celluloid poster, is impressive.\r\nLettering\r\nType types were already used in this print but the prenomen â€Å"The Bridge on the River Kwai” is emphatically hand-executed in bold, peckish manner which is in truth prominent.\r\nThe Guns of Navarone.\r\nDesign\r\nThis one uses comics-type illustration and classic poster size to present soaked images of the lead characters and the sea. Already, the use of the classic movie poster lay-out is laid and presented making this one in hand-lettering and cut and paste interpreting one for the books.\r\nColor\r\nThe use of the sensationalistic/brown and red combination is another(prenominal) notable characteristic of this movie poster. It is foxy with a huge single image in symmetrical residuum with the lead credits. However, its catch line superimposed on the image is not very perceptible or smasher.\r\nLettering\r\nThe Guns of Navarone is also hand-executed with uneven yet type-cast style showing pagan influence in the design and lettering. The bigger presentation of the lead character names overshadow the movie title, showing that the characters are more saleable than the story plot. Or that each could help sell the other. A witty address towards commercialism.\r\nSpatial Lay-out\r\nThe use of space and overall design of the poster is pleasing and symmetrical. It is also-well- reliefd and does not stray the care away from it.\r\nThe Magnificent Seven.\r\nDesign\r\nThe Magnificent Seven uses the tot up image as its main design structure showcasing the establishment of the lead characters. It has a convincing approach to the use of graphics and confining images in a relevant manner so as to emphasize the number.\r\nColor\r\n once again, the colors red and yellow are very evident in this poster although the gray, black and white images of the faces and heads confined inside the number add a balance that mutes the overwhelming yellow. The use of the neutrals or muffled hues is very rational as use of human flesh colors could flood out the effect red and yellow provide. However, surplus color on the images below the number 7 could have provided more impact, intrigue and variety.\r\nSpatial Lay out\r\nThe lay-out is quite a crampy within the confines of the number 7, with much waste on the sides of each space. The limitation could have been the effect of printing graphics at that time. Use of machine is already evident at this poster and the font sizes and the wasted spaces provide a coup doeil of experimentation being used.\r\nLettering\r\nA combination of hand-executed lettering and machine type, this one shows the limitation of graphic design during the period.\r\nThe Great Escape.\r\nDesign\r\nConsidered the quad poster, this one uses even design to present the entire poster. The balance is achieved through the placement of small catch line on the left and the title and image on the center-right.\r\nColor\r\nThe use of basic r ed and blue is very effective as black balances the whitish color of the reversed title in big fat fonts.\r\nSpatial lay out\r\nThere is also the experimentation of text size in this poster. charm balance is being achieved, there is also the wastage of some space where the catch line could have gained advantage. However, since commercial design was in its adolescent stage, this is forgivable.\r\nLettering\r\nMachine seems to be the evident executor at this poster. Every letter size and type are render and the check use of space made it more obvious.\r\nConclusion\r\nThe period when photographs are hardly used, comic and book art illustrations were used in movie posters. These posters achieved classic popularity and acceptance due to use of what are typically accepted design concepts at that time; use of basic colors red, yellow and blue which appear striking against one another at the very(prenominal) time catchy in the commercial sense, attainment of balance and symmetry by no t tilting the meter of text and photos to exclusively a single side, or see-through use of centering. The lay-out and ettering are evidently limited due to time and resources restrictions. However, in a period when posters were used as announcements and not exactly collectible graphic arts, these are acceptable norms for movie posters.\r\nCurrent trends, however, whitethorn provide new design concepts that may or may not be considered acceptable in any other given period. Design mutates, and popular test is conditioned, influenced, as well as acquired. So does design and movie posters.\r\nReference:\r\nKinross, robin (1992). â€Å"Conversation with Richard Hollis on Graphic Design History.” Journal of Design History 5 (3) 73-93.\r\nHershenson, Bruce (1998). â€Å"A History of Movie Posters.” careen Classics.\r\n'

Thursday, December 20, 2018

'Feminist Philosophy Essay\r'

'Mary Wollstonecraft was no doubt a great wowork forces liberationist and deserved to be called universal gravitational constantm different of the libber ruling. Her primal experiences of an unsuccessful family life as sanitary as the general flavour of the philosophers at that time more or less wo custody cause her views to become authentic feminist grand m opposite. Wollstonecraft’s feminist ideas affected the number one dither of feminism through her arguments against the prevailing views on women most nonably that of Rousseau’s which categorized women as subservient to men. Rousseau held that women’s education should be designed merely to make them pleasing to men.\r\nRousseau reflected â€Å"to please, to be helpful to us, to make us love and consider them, to educate us when young and top c be of us when grown up, to advise, to sym way of lifeize with us, to render our lives easy and agreeableâ€these be duties of women at all timesâ €¦â€(Feminist school of thought). Against this view, Wollstonecraft figure hard to emphasize that the role of women in the ordering were not simply an ornaments and playthings of men as they are also up to(p) of attaining masculine virtues of wisdom and rationality â€Å"if society would allow those value to be accomplished” (p.475-476).\r\nWollstonecraft pointed out that the prevailing views on women had dingy implications not only on women notwithstanding on society as well as they will only cause bitterness, jealousy, and folly. She affected the basic jolt of feminist by encouraging them â€Å"to restore women to their incapacitated dignity by encouraging unwrap ideas of woman hood” (p. 476). How did Simone de Beauvoirs writing govern the punt tremble?\r\nThe wink wave of feminism was a resurgence of early feminism as a top of various works of feminists during the 1940s much(prenominal) as her works. De Beauvoir writings shaped the atomic number 16 wave of feminism by shedding light just about what is a woman in the concept of creation other, and how men views women during this period. In her writings de Beauvoir shed loving reasonableness on womanhood. She pointed out that the ingrained social meaning of woman is Other.\r\nShe explained, â€Å"No group ever sets itself up as the One without at once lay up the Other over against itself” (p. 479). The thought that de Beauvoir was pointing out was that men do not view women as human being like them but as Others who are to be treated as foreigner that do not deserve partake manipulation. The implication of men’s treatment of women as Others according to de Beauvoir was that because women are others, they do not need to be given â€Å" gibe weight to their preferences” simply because they are others (p. 480).\r\nDebeauvoir’s writings shaped the second wave of feminism through her incomparable way of providing social understanding about how women were regarded by men during this period. How did the events of the source and second wave affect each other? Apparently, the event of the first and the second wave of feminism affect each other in a way that they attribute the second wave to the first. The second wave feminist was inspired by the events during the first wave to tag along their path of pushing for the recognition of women’s rights.\r\nApparently, the events of the first wave feminist shaped the understanding of the second wave feminism about women’s rights, against the existing social and philosophical views on women. Thus, the events of the first wave serves as mirror for the second wave, and as fervency for them to continue women’s struggle for the homecoming of their lost dignity as women equal with men in many aspect, oddly on human rights. Reference More-Bruder: Philosophy: The Power of Ideas (2008) Feminist Philosophy The McGraw-Hill Companies\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'Hinduism: Samsara\r'

'Samsara is a Sanskrit raillery meaning the endless cycle of birth, bread and howeverter, demolition, and rebirth that is considered to be experienced by whole humans in the Upanishads and in Buddhism. It is the repeated passingof souls through different worlds. Thus, Samsara is usually kn experience as â€Å"the wheel of life” in Hinduism. Also, Samsara refers to the general, day-to-day struggles and obstacles man experiences through pop life. Samsara exists in legion(predicate) religions desire Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Vaishnavism, and other related religions.According to these religions, one has a karmic â€Å"account balance” when he or she r from each onees death that will determine one’s mickle when a person is reborn. In Hinduism, ego-consciousness of the body and the phenomenal world comes from ignorance of one’s true self. This heart that through egoism and personal desire, people argon creating the basis for their next life or â€Å" future day becoming”. The path of Samsara can only be overcome by attaining a sense of selflessness and having one’s soul (atman) follow its own version of Samsara…repeatedly reincarnating.Samsara is a genuinely provoke concept to me and I am fascinated by the stories I’ve heard from Buddhist friends of mine. I’ve enjoyed the caller-up of my Buddhist friend,Betty, because I’ve learned so lots from her as we both have sh ared our religions with each other… me being muslim and her being Buddhist. Our religions are completely different from one a nonher so I was very curious to know what she believes and how spiritual rebirth and Samsara play a role in her life.I’ve cognize Betty for over five years and I neer thought of her to be a very phantasmal person because she did not throw her religion at people or talk about it all the time. I ended up finding out that she prayed on a daily basis and she was very strong i n her religion as a Buddhist. She was everlastingly very relaxed and positive, alone the best involvement about her is how she naturally helped others with no expectation of anything in return. She is so giving and selfless, and it is very humbling to larn the things she does for others.She never tries to convert others when religion is brought up like most people do. She is absolutely beautiful as well, and she has very high morals and values that she lives by. She is salutary a majuscule person and I would always think back at our friendship and advise her so much because she is one of my only friends that has not wronged me. One day Bettytold me that the first time she saw her Buddhist monk she felt like she knew him, scarcely could never figure out where from. He was bony to her and was very interested in her life.She was flattered by this, but she did not understand why he took such(prenominal) major interest in her. After months of talking, she dummy up could not te ll where she knew his familiar face from. As her story went on, I found out that the Buddhist monk finally told her why he was so interested in her personality and the way she lived he life. He told her that she was an angel in the past life that had helped him in a life crisis situation. I was shocked, but at the same time, it made sense considering how great of a person she was and all the beautiful things she did for others.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'Economic Effects of Immigration in the Philippines\r'

'Ten Economic Facts about in-migration INTRODUCTION The Hamilton Project believes it is important to reason the true immigration debate in an objective stinting framework based on the best useable evidence. In this policy memo, we explore some of the questions frequently raised rough immigration in the unite States and provide facts drawn from publicly available entropy sets and the academic literature. Most Ameri tramps agree that the current U. S. immigration system is flawed.Less clear, however, be the economic facts about immigrationâ€the real effects that new immigrants convey on wages, jobs, budgets, and the U. S. economyâ€facts that argon essential to a plastic national debate. These facts paint a much nuanced portraiture of American immigration than is portrayed in at present’s debate. Recent immigrants hail from many more countries than prior immigrants; they carry with them a wide set out of skills from new PhDs graduating from American universi ties to laborers without a high schoolhouse degree.Most recent immigrants have entered the joined States legally, but nigh 11 million unlicensed immigrants currently conk and work in America; the majority of these unauthorized workers settled here more than a hug drug ago. Each of these immigrant groups affects the U. S. economy in varied ways that should be considered in the current debate around immigration reform. Immigrants now comprise more than 12 shareage of the American population, according to recent estimates, approach levels not seen since the early 20th nose candy.Today’s controersies over immigration echo arguments made a century ago during the last immigration peak. While the demographics of U. S. immigrants have shifted dramatically, the concerns voiced about the social and economic impacts of immigration strike a familiar chord. A major economic concern is how immigrants influence the wages and barter prospects of U. S. workers. The economic impacts of immigration vary tremendously, depending on whether immigrants are un proficient agricultural laborers, for example, or highly skilled PhD computer scientists.Although their consequences are often conflated, it is constructive to take the impacts of low-skilled and high-skilled immigrants independently. Another point of controversy in today’s debate involves the impact of unauthorized immigrants on our economic wellbeing. The best estimates suggest that 28 percent of the total foreign-born population could be unauthorized. concord to the Pew Hispanic Center, roughly 60 percent of these unauthorized immigrants are from Mexico. (However, unauthorized immigrants make up only about 21 percent of U. S. residents of Mexican heritage. When possible, we try to differentiate the figures to more closely pick up the different effectsâ€positive or shunâ€that unauthorized workers may have on the economy. Of course, on that point are many factors at play and the economic ev idence is only one piece of the puzzle. These facts are designed to provide a common ground that all participants in the policy debate can agree on. In the months and years ahead, The Hamilton Project lead return to the issue of immigration as we put up policy recommendations on the economic issues facing the United States.\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'How Does My Interpersonal Communication Shield Impact My Everyday Communication Skills Essay\r'

'Being able to participate and fill up part in this project was very interesting. It gave me a chance to look at how others view me, how I view myself, and what entices me to be the person that I am. I’ve always been a nice and hardworking person. I love to help people, and I try to period very verifying even when situations present themselves to attend impossible. My family and friends along with my boyfriend all help influence the attitude that I confirm towards life.\r\nI’m a very open person in social situations, but I support as well as be very guarded virtually my individualised life. I’ve always had a pretty properly self-esteem. I try not to allow others the enjoyment of forcing me to come out of my comfort zone and crack my self-esteem. I try to stay out of situations that may make me feel bad about myself. I believe that my interpersonal communication shield impacts my chance(a) communication skills.\r\nFrom the nurturing people that surr ound me on a daily basis to influence me to stay peremptory and always be myself, to my defense against destructive heathen beliefs that help me stay encouraged to always be positive. I am most definitely wedged by my shield. There are also many another(prenominal) things that I don’t lie with about myself, such as particular body language. I do many things that I don’t honor but someone else may notice subconsciously. This is in my hidden self these could be negatively charged or positive. But I do know that they are reflections of how I really feel at time.\r\nIn my private life I mint be like a wall, I’m extremely guarded about my feelings and my business. I grassnister easily self-disclose to my family and close friends as well as my boyfriend, although it is a lot harder for me to self-disclose with strangers and distant friends and associates. I can be a loner at times but I use my self- affirming statements to stay positive and keep my head up w hen I can’t rely on others to influence my attitude. They have always been a good resource when I feel by myself and need some positivity.\r\n'

Sunday, December 16, 2018

'The Opposite Sex\r'

'Well, I leave now been going bulge with the most arouse charr I could forever meet. She is called Lolita, she is 28 and lives in a Manchester flat. She is a kind and thoughtful woman who is always up for a laugh and she is too in a way slightly vulturine as she can non control herself at times. Her best cause though is the fact that she is very attractive. and in my opinion there is a flaw to her which in a way annoys me because I dont understand it. The paradox is that I can non understand the mind of the opposite sex. I think that I start up to understand her, and consequently Im lost and confused.\r\nI met her at a concert, everyplace the Christmas holidays. We befool been going break through ever since. I think that she is wonderful, but she is so confusing to me. For example, what happened the early(a) night. We were watching a film, ‘Saving Private Ryan. At parts I got a bit upset, not emotional, but it make my go â€Å"aww”, and the odd amour that Loli did was that when the dying captain whispered the words in the young privates ear and wherefore died, not even a blink.\r\nWhen the German sniper got shot through the eye, and the Germans all being shot after the wall fell, she was distraught. I thought it was because it seemed such a ice-cold and evil death, but when the Jew was killed by the man who the company saved him, not even a squeak. This I did not understand a bit. At champion point I thought that she was a Nazi. But I think that the cold killings and disgusting scenes were the problem, and then by the end of the film she was used to it. zip fastener really to get upset over though.\r\n erstwhile I was talking about(predicate) PMT. This was at the start of our relationship and I hadnt contendn her that long. Before with former girlfriends and my sister, they all made sarcastic laughs or smirked. I assumed that, that was the aforesaid(prenominal) with most women and could laugh at there own problems, but I couldnt have been more wrong. We had just had a small drink with some of our catch, we only had two drinks and we then went station. I had distinguishable previously to stay the night at her hold, so I walked home with her. We got home and we sit down down. She had the idea of getting a admitaway. So I told her what I wanted. This was 7:30 when I decided..\r\nIt took process 8:00 to order the meal as she didnt know whether to order an Indian or a Chinese, and then what she wanted to order. Loli now got a bit rough as she was so hungry, and then dipstick here decided to discuss PMT, to try and cheer her up as there was just a report about it on the news. Oh how I should not have bypast their, I havent forgotten it and I dont think I ever will. What happened was that I started off by tell something that the reporter had said, I questioned her PMT. I started, â€Å"You know, that could be right. I mean PMT was only invented in the 1950s.” I looked at her, she was g iving me an icy st be that would have made Cybil Fawlty jealous. My mistake was to continue, that stare was a warning. But I didnt stop, and then all of a sudden. Poof! Loli had direct a cushion flying across the style and it smacked me in the gob. The zip even caught me in the cheek.\r\nâ€Å"”What was that for?”\r\nâ€Å"Cant you take a hint?” she barked.\r\nâ€Å"There was no deal for that, it really hurt. I didnt know you were so soft about it.”\r\nâ€Å"Just dont do it again, you have no idea how very much that sort of thing winds me up.”\r\nNo-one has ever done that to me over a joke that isnt personal. And I think that if I did it again we would get into a big argument. That made me think that it didnt take much to get her upset, it made me a bit weary.\r\nThose are the bad things, but there is also broad(a) in everyone, even Hitler.\r\nIt was my birthday three weeks ago. My 24th. I was just expecting to have a drink with my mates, per haps a party at my house which I had organised. I got something much better than that. I woke up slightly late for me on the Saturday morning, my birthday. I was woken to toast, pancakes, waffles, bucks fizz, croissant, cereal, and a sausage, bacon and bean breakfast. I was gob smacked. I would credibly never have this much for a v course meal, let alone breakfast. I close in in and then got up. Scattered around the house were balloons and then downstairs was my present. �100 of vouchers for the local mall.\r\nWe went out and I bought us lunch and a hood for me and a DVD of U2 which Loli had her eye on. I came home and opened the door to find that I had a surprise party thrown for me and all my mates had clubbed together to buy me a 2 night holiday to Amsterdam. Then I collapsed. It was like having 8 Christmass rolled into one. That showed me the kind and thoughtful side to Loli. She showed me what a fantastic woman she is. I also byword the fact that I think that wit hout each other we are useless. But I think that, that is the same with everyone. We all need the opposite sex, you cant enjoy action being a hermit. So get out there and live!\r\n'

Friday, December 14, 2018

'Power of One\r'

'Chapter unitary thickset On his Granpas invoke in the state of sweepter of Natal in s bug turn uph-central Africa, an unnamed light-haired infant is eat by his dense Zulu she-goat. She sings to him of warf beriors and wo manpower lavation at the baboons weewee hole. At five, the pocket-sized male childs aim has a nervous breakd suffer and he is s dismiss to an Afrikaans embarkment nurture. He is the youngest student by ii long meter, and is hated beca use he is the scarce English- babble outer in the erupt, which scrams him a â€Å"rooinek” (Afrikaans for â€Å"redneck,” a derogatory term for the British, hereditary from the Boer agitate).deuce el plane-year-olds plant the dwarfish male child to trial †he is made to kneel naked in the representer, where he places a prayer to his Zulu nanny ins afterwardhigh noon tead of to God. The tag, along with his â€Å"council of war”, pee on the male child. The dinky male chil d has never foregathern a shower ahead †his nanny al counsellings washed him in a potty tub. The matron of the hostel, plainly c everyed â€Å"Mevrou” (â€Å" vaultus” in Afrikaans), smells the pee on the son and drags him to the showers. She switches on the cold faucet, tho the male child thinks that she besides must be peeing on him. The evaluate asks the male child wherefore he wets his bed. The boy corporation non answer.The chance upon pulls imbibe the boys pants, and the kids every(prenominal) look and prank at his â€Å"hatless snake” †his circumcised extremity. They all streng thusly â€Å"pisskop” (â€Å"piss learning top executive”), which pop offs his nickname. The count on forthwith dis playing periods his own galactic, uncircumcised penis. The piffling boy manages to whittle the tortures pop out to superstar hour a day. His bedwetting still lingers, however, causing him shame and misery. Mevrou examines his bed either morning and sends him to wash the rubber sheet until his pass reek of the gondolabolic soap. The boy learns that he unavoidably to dramatize a camouflage in localize to be refer. As part of this camouflage, he resolves never to war cry.This decision infuriates the tag. The boy gains some respect from the separate kids for holding the school record for the largest number of beatings, til now they observe to dislodge and torment him verbally and physically. At the end of the strawmanmost term, the boys district doctor and the flyhalf for the Northern Transvaal rugby team, Dr. Henny Boshoff, picks him up to drive him place to his Granpa, and nanny on the farm. The suppose, strike by this proud exit from the school, promises the boy pause treatment after(prenominal) the holi eld. Dr. Henny sound outs the boy that his vex is rec e very(prenominal)(prenominal)placeing from her reak crop up, nonwithstanding is non take iny to heel cou nter home yet. It is deep summer, and on the farm, the depressed women spend their days singing as they see cotton. nurse prays for Inkosi-Inkosikazi, the massive b miss medicine man, to vi bait them to solve the little boys bedwetting problem. Inkosi-Inkosikazi eventually lands in a obscure Buick. The women gather gifts of viands for him, among them creation some â€Å" kafir lily-livereds,” non quite dead. One of the chickens reminds the boy of his Granpa. The besides variance rests in the plazaball: the cock has beady look whereas the boys Granpa has sums â€Å" mean for gazing oer soft English beautifys. The boys Granpa despises Shangaan raft ( wholeness of the black tribes of southern Africa), more than everyplace he respects the Zulu medicine man, Inkosi-Inkosikazi, who once cured his gallst adepts. Inkosi-Inkosikazi is con aspectred the net of the sons of the famous Zulu king, Dingaan, who fought off two British and Boers (Afrikaners). The boys Granpa welcomes him to the farm. Inkosi-Inkosikazi orders the black women to let the chickens loose and catch them a sustain time. therefore he uses â€Å"low-grade put-on” to put them to sleep. He beckons the boy to sit with him on the â€Å"indaba” (meeting) mat †a great honor, since only chiefs argon holded to sit on these mats.Inkosi-Inkosikazi now summons Nanny to put forward the boys bedwetting story in Shangaan. Nanny brings the women to tears with her majestic elocutionary s refines. Dee and Dum, the twin kitchen maids, ar dazzled by Nannys story. But Inkosi-Inkosikazi just now scratches his choke offside and orders â€Å" kaffir corn beer. ” That dwarf Nanny hugs Peekay, telling him he has brought honor on her by allowing her to show that a Zulu woman bath rival Shangaans in tale-telling. The followers day Inkosi-Inkosikazis magic Ox shinb iodines tell him to visit the boy in his dreams. In his dreams, the boy must leap over three p iss go and cross ten st nonp areils of a river.Inkosi-Inkosikazi puts the boy to sleep and speaks him d sensation the dream landscape, calling him the â€Å"little warrior of the king. ” Then he conjure ups the boy and tells him that he lav al bearings find him in the â€Å" nighttime country. ” Inkosi-Inkosikazi now teaches the boy his magic chicken trick and gives him angiotensin-converting enzyme of the chickens †the one that looks similar his Granpa †on which to practice. The boy name the chicken Granpa Chook. analytic thinking The fresh subjects with the startling ensure of a blonde boy beingness suckled by a black wet nurse. We ar present(prenominal)ly confronted with the issue of race, and more specifically of idiosyncratic racial relationships.The type narrating-that of the protagonist Peekay-is critical of both racial intolerance it encounters. A reflection on Afrikaners hatred for the English, spawned during the time of the Boer War , ushers in the comment of five-year-old Peekays pay offr at embarkment school. As the narrator explains, the Boer War (1899â€1902) was fought in the midst of the Boers (the Afrikaans-speakers of southernmost Africa) and the British (the English- speakers of siemens Africa) for climb possession of the country. Both Boers and British believed themselves to be the rightful(prenominal) inheritors of federation Africa.It witnessed the scratch concentration camps in the cosmosâ€the British confined the Boers to these concentration camps, where twenty-six grand men, women, and children died. The derogatory Afrikaans term â€Å"rooinek” (redneck)-used to fall upon the British-was coined at the time of the war since the necks of the British burnt deep red at a lower place the hot African sun. By introducing the historic conflict playween the two â€Å" face cloth tribes” of South Africa, Peekay reminds proof readers that racial tension goes beyond diff erence in clamber color-in his row, it enters the â€Å"bloodstream,” and extends to all miscellanys of cultural and ideological differences.He subtly critiques this inherited â€Å"hatred,” which the descriptions of his torture at the pass of the boarding school boys serve to illustrate. Peekays bad voice uses hyperbole, or exaggeration, to describe the torture sessions the articulate and his â€Å"council of war” squeeze upon his five-year-old self. The array and sub judice metaphors that Peekay uses seem apt when one considers the ingrained violence exercised upon the boy-he is urinated on, caned, and severely beaten. Moreover, many of the impairment- such as â€Å"standing trial” and â€Å"passing sentence”-argon the boys own invention.We ar required to comp atomic number 18 the cruel vagary of the boarding school boys with the desire Peekay discovers at the end of the invigorated through Inkosi-Inkosikazi. piece of music the narrator keeps an juiceless distance amongst himself and the jr. self he is narrating (demonstrated by the narrators sophisticated vocabulary such as â€Å"s d salubriousorian” and â€Å"carbolic”), he a great deal portrays events through five-year-old eyeball. He introduces the radix of the difficulty of defining death by providing us with young Peekays thoughts on the crystallizeic: â€Å"I wasnt quite sure what death was.I k advanced it was something that happened on the farm in the slaughterhouse to pigs… The squeal from the pigs was so wondrous that I k recent it wasnt more than of an experience, even for pigs. ” The latter computer address excessively parts the narrators nose out of humor-throughout the clean, the narrator finely balances tragedy and comedy, suggesting that laughing is sometimes the only government agency of deal with adversity. Chapter cardinal thickset The holidays end. The little boys bedwetting problem is solved , exactly he system concerned active his â€Å"hatless snake,” even though he recalls that Inkosi-Inkosikazi assured him they make dod out that anatomical trait.Nanny packs the boys bags, and includes a red sweater that his m separate sent from â€Å"the nervous breakdown place. ” They drive in Granpas Model A Ford truck with Mrs. Vorster, the neighbour widow. The boy, his nanny, and Granpa Chook travel in the back up. Nanny is going to town in order to send currency to her family in Zululand since there has been a drought. They arrive at the boarding school early, so the boy and Granpa Chook perch in the boys secret mango tree. Later, the boy leave alones Granpa Chook in a clearing in a citrus woodlet while he visits Mevrouâ€he reports that he no long-range has a bedwetting problem.Mevrou answers that her â€Å"sjambok” (caning stick) entrust be lonely. On returning to the clearing, the boy watches Granpa Chook fight a scab snake. The chicken wins, biting off and eating the snakes head. The boy hangs this stand by â€Å"hatless snake” from a distinguish near his dormitory revolveow. That night the divergent kids return. The Judge and his â€Å"jury” beat the boy up for canvas the Judges new arm tattoo to a â€Å"kaffir” womans face tattoos. The Judge boasts that his tattoo is a swastika, the attri scarcelye of Adolf Hitler. He tells the boy that Adolf Hitler is going to help the Afrikaners deracinate the English.All the boys swear death to all Englishmen in South Africa. Afterwards, the little boys try to figure out who Hitler is. Danie Coetzee, the little boys spokesman, guesses that it is the new headmaster. That night the little boy experiences â€Å"the loneliest aftermath that had ever been. â€Å"The succeeding(prenominal) morning, Granpa Chook wakes everyone up with his cock-a-doodle-doing on the boys windowsill. When Mevrou enters, she nonices the â€Å"chicken divulge” on the boys bed and canes him. She wants to exceptcher Granpa Chook, exactly when the chicken kills two cockroaches in her defense, she gives him the position of â€Å" spic of creepy-crawlies” in the kitchen.Months pass. The boyâ€still only cognize to us as â€Å"Pisskop”†dumbfounds the Judges servant. In class, Pisskop quickly learns to read Afrikaans and becomes the best in his class in all subjects, even though he is the former(a) boys junior by two years. In accession to English and Afrikaans, he in like direction speaks the African languages of Zulu and Shangaan fluently. However, mindful that his intelligence may be detrimental to his safety, he pretends non to be as dodgy as he actually is. World War II arrives. A new headmaster comes.The old headmaster, who has a drinking problem, leaves, tho only after announcing the â€Å" inviol competent intelligence activity” that Hitler will save the Afrikaners and destroy the English. The Judg e warns Pisskop that he will be the prototypic of their prison house houseers of war. In class, Pisskops ear selects mauled when the new teacher, Miss du Plessis, hits him for pretending non to know the twelve times table. Then she faints. other teacher, Mr. Stoffel throws Pisskop against a wall and blames him for killing the teacher. When Pisskop wakes up, he is ameliorate to find that Dr. Henny is looking after him.Mevrou makes Pisskop lie to Dr. Henny and say that he fell out of a tree. Miss du Plessis has a nervous breakdown and a new teacher, Mrs. Gerber, arrives. Pisskop believes that he has caused both his get downs and Miss du Plessis breakdowns. Analysis Chapter Two explains the title of the book and introduces us to the novels main solution: the importance of independence. The five-year-old Pisskop has already learned the necessity of development an independent spirit within himself. His experiences show him that he can non rely on anyone at the boarding school; he must nourish this power on his own.Adaptation, or survival of the fittest through camouflage, is as fundamental as independence for survival. The boy, whose constant consideration of how to cope with his difficult spiritedness makes the novels style approach a kind of stream-of-consciousness, believes that he must camouflage his fantabulous mind. He asks himself questions such as â€Å"How could you go un formulaic with a friend like [Granpa Chook] at your side? ” He withal occasionally uses the imperative voice, as though counseling himself: â€Å"…adapt, blend, become part of the landscape, develop a camouflage,…try in every way to be an Afrikaner. In some senses, the pen keeps the boy camouflaged from us as well. For example, we are concerned in referring to him as â€Å"Pisskop” or â€Å"rooinek” since we start no other name for him. The nonion of naming-as- identifying becomes a rattling issue in this novel, where white concourse do non distinguish surrounded by black rafts, only when sooner clump them all together under the derogatory term â€Å"kaffirs. ” Naming someone else is a powerful tool for establishing identityâ€as a bedwetter, an English-speaker, or a black psyche.With the continuation from Chapter 1 of the little boys precept, the novel aims to suggest that its genre is that of the â€Å"bildungsroman”-a novel which follows a protagonist from early childhood to maturity. The feature that the novel is narrated by the protagonist-as- self-aggrandising from some safe power layover in the future confirms this genre. The narrator tells the events as he perceived them through his five-year-old look, but at the verbalise(prenominal) time gives glimpses of his mature perspective on the events. For example, there is wry irony in the description of how the little boys agree that the new headmaster must be Adolf Hitler.The narrator does non contradict the boys view, but allows the reader to chuckle at the mis deriveings of young minds. The protagonist already begins to stand out, however; in spite of his naivete, his observations are often uncannily accurate. We are by no means to mock the boy, but rather to question at his resilience in this tough creation. The narrator confronts the reader with the nastiness of the situation through vivid, immediate story-telling through an abundance of dialogue. The language is often stately or crude oil-at one point the five-year-old Pisskop exclaims to himself, â€Å"What a shit of a day already! At other times, however, Pisskop does not possess decorous vocabulary to describe the experiences with which he is confronted-for example, he refers to the mental institution simply as â€Å"the nervous breakdown place. ” Chapter Three Summary The Judge and his jury interrogate the boy about why his names are â€Å"Pisskop” and â€Å"rooinek. ” The Judge pulls down the boys pajama pants and tells h im he is an English â€Å"rooinek” because his â€Å"snake has no hat. ” Boers, in contrast, pretend hats on their snakes. The boys punishment is to surround about the playground every day, counting backward from five thousand.However, he actually spends this time doing the Judges grooming in his head. The boy helps the Judge with his homework, reasoning that if the Judge passes the school exams, the boy will no longer tolerate to deal with him. He manages to convince the Judge to allow him to become his full-time homework helper. He realizes, however, that the teacher Mr. Stoffel will smell foul play if the Judges mental ability drastically im mounts. The Judge paying attention the boy for being a â€Å"slimmertjie” (a little clever one). In return for the help, the Judge annuls the marching after school, and promises not to tell Hitler about the boy.Everything seems to be carry on more smoothly for the boy and Granpa Chook. The boys hear that Newcastle infirmity has erupted on a chicken farm nearby. The boy worries about his Granpa, his sire, and himself. He ardently wishes to live with his nanny in Zululand, hidden from Hitler. The Judge reports news of the war, since Mr. Stoffel allows him to harken to his radio. Hitler has taken Poland, which the boy thinks must be in South Africa, owned by the â€Å"Po” tribe. No one explains to him that South Africa is on Englands side. The Judge holds â€Å"war councils” behind the school toilets.The senior hostel boys are called â€Å"storm troopers. ” The boy and Granpa Chook are the â€Å"prisoners of war” and are tortured and interrogated. The boy must submit to â€Å"Chinese torture”-that is, holding an iron bar with his arm stretched out in front of him-and â€Å"shooting practice,” where he holds tin cans into which the storm troopers catapult s lumbers. In the interrogation, the boy is forced to call his scram a â€Å" work” wh o sleeps with â€Å"kaffirs. ” They burn him and put biting ants in his pants, but nothing they do can make him cry. The boys un savouringness infuriates them.The boy lodges to us those he only cries inwardly-in the â€Å"night country. â€Å"The school term draws to a keep mum. Mr. Stoffel holds up the Judge as an example of academic improvement. The Judge shows no gratitude to the boy for his help. Instead, during a final torture session, he tries to make the boy eat homo feces. The boy refuses, keeping his mouth tightly shut. The Judge olibanum rubs the feces into the boys teeth, lips, face, and hair. As the Judge cries â€Å"Hail Hitler! ” to the skies, Granpa Chook defecates into the Judges open mouth. In retaliation, the Judge catapults a stone into the â€Å"kaffir chicken rooinek,” breaking his ribcage.The boy begs them not to kill Granpa Chook, but they pelt the chicken to death. The boy cries for the low time- thereof ending the drought in Zulu land. He gives Granpa Chook a fine burial, and covers his battered body with stones. The â€Å" desolation snicker” settles inside the boy. At dinner that night, the boy is told he must visit Mevrou in the dispensary after the meal. Analysis Chapter Three adds the judgment of an inner and an outer self to the theme of the power of one. Pisskop learns how to lead a echo brioâ€how to be â€Å"in two places at once”â€so that he can come forth to have a tough exterior, while cover his vulnerable interior.In point, everything that the boy has learnt in Chapter One and Two becomes complicated in Chapter Three. Suddenly the Judge shows glimpses of valet de chambre by treating the boy â€Å"not entirely without sympathy. ” Although the litotes-or double negative of â€Å"not entirely without sympathy” indicates that the Judge has only microscopically improved his appearance, it nevertheless shows that the boy has learnt that this is not a clear-cu t fight between good enough and evil, Afrikaners and English, black and white.Bathos, or anti- climax, also serves to highlighting that the boys torturers are human beings, not nameless demons: at the end of Chapter Three we finally learn that the Judge has a nameâ€Jaapie Botha. maculation the boy realizes that his idea is his one way out of the horror of his life, at the analogous time he has to recognize that â€Å"imagination is always the best torturer. â€Å"As the first person narrator, the boy describes not only the events of his early life, but all his emotions and philosophies. He shares with us universally sensible musings that he has extracted from his experience: â€Å"One thing is trustworthy in life.Just when things are going well, soon by and by they are certain to go wrong. Its just the way things are meant to be. ” The readers compassion, or sense of pathos, for the protagonist increases because the descriptions of his cast off by his breed ar e subtle. Instead of blaming other raft, Pisskop becomes everyones scapegoat. We learn that no one has recognized his natal day when he remarks, in a non-accusatory tone: â€Å"I had turned six but nobody had told me, so in my head, I was still five. ” Chapter Four Summary After dinner in the boarding house, the boy visits Mevrou.She hands him a acquire ticket to Barberton, a small town in the Eastern Transvaal province. The locomote will take two days and two nights. The boys Granpa had to sell his farm to their neighbor, Mrs. Vorster, because Newcastle disease killed off his chickens. The avocation day from his secret mango tree, the boy watches the other kids leave. Then Mevrou marches him off to buy â€Å"tackies” (sneakers) at the Jew irritate Crowns shop. The boy has never owned tog beforeâ€on the farm, the kids simply wore khaki shorts, shirts, and a sweater if it was cold. When they arrive at kick up Crowns shop, it is closed.Mevrou sends the boy to w ash his feet at a garage, and the boy notices a sign to a higher place a full treatmenthop hoodwink that reads â€Å"BLACKS further. ” He wonders why whites are forbidden there. Harry Crown, jaunty and jocular, arrives. He brews up some java for Mevrou and gives the boy a raspberry sucker. He expresses bump when, on asking the boy his name, he replies â€Å"Pisskop. ” With the money the boys Granpa has sent, Mevrou buys him some tackies which are two times too high-risk for his feet-she stuffs them with balls of newspaper so they will fit. Pisskop feels grand in them, even though he can barely walk.Harry Crown packs four more suckers into the skid box while Mevrou is not looking. He also invents a new, more sanitary name for the boy-Peekay. The boy likes the name and decides to adopt it for himself. That evening Mevrou takes Peekay to the film station. She puts his Granpas change-a shilling-into a pocket on his clothes. When the determine arrives, the station master introduces Peekay and Mevrou to the tick guard, Hoppie Groenewald, who he says is â€Å" one of the railways. ” Peekay trips up the appurtenance move because of his tackies getting in the way but Hoppie large-hearted gathers him up in his implements of war.Hoppie keeps Peekay company in the admit compartment, and allows him to take of the tackies. Peekay asks Hoppies about the sepia photographs hung on the walls- they show Cape Town and Table Mountain. This sets Hoppie off talking about how he intimately competed in the guinea pig railways slugfest championships in Cape Town. He begins great(p) Peekay a packing material lesson, slipping some flog backpacking gloves onto Peekays hands. Although the gloves are far too big, they feel comfortable to Peekay. Peekay secretly delights that Hoppie may be able to each him how to defend himself against the likes of the Judge. Hoppie tells Peekay that when he set ups up he will be the welterweight champion of South Africa. He urges Peekay to start fisticuffs lessons as soon as he arrives in Barberton. When the train refuels at Tzaneen, Hoppie treats Peekay to a mixed grill at the Railway cafe where the bar ladies interrogate Hoppie about his coterminous fistfight fight. Peekay notices that Hoppie likes the younger woman, who has very red lips. Peekay falls incognizant and the last image he look upons is Hoppie tucking him into bed. AnalysisThe novels main plot, involving wadding, begins in Chapter Four as Peekay meets Hoppie Groenewald. Peekay compares Hoppies parting in his life to that of a sudden and temporary â€Å"meteorite” and calls him a â€Å"mentor. ” The wadding plot initiates a new theme in the novel: the role of mentors in education. Education is not defined merely in formal terms, but as relating to the development of the person in his entirety. In such a way, the novel begins to tackle attainable prejudices against lark, and particularly packing, which is often assumed to give security deposit only to violence and aggression.The boxing plot also incorporates the theme of the power of one, since Peekays ambition to become the welterweight champion of South Africa, and accordingly of the world, is purely his own ambition. The people Peekay encounters later in the novel support him in his endeavor, but often do not view it. Chapter Four also introduces the main milieuâ€or screen backgroundâ€of the novel: apartheid. ‘Apartheid is an Afrikaans term kernel simply ‘apartness, and was coined by the Nationalist president of South Africa, Daniel Malan, in 1948.Chapter Four occurs before 1948, however, when white supremacist demeanour was already in operation, but not yet systematized. Peekays first consciousness of apartheid comes in this chapter, when he notices the â€Å"BLACKS ONLY” sign. In keeping with his childlike perspective, however, the author does not explain apartheid but pushes it to the backgroun d. Peekays lack of understanding of apartheid ceremonious dramatic irony, as the reader understands the kind institutions which define and affect Peekay from a more informed point of view.Peekays confusion is not intended to be analyse as a childlike confusion, howeverâ€the questions Peekay asks are terrifyingly legitimate and on the button. For instance, when he wonders why white people cannot enter the workshop, he unwittingly touches at the irrationality of racialism and apartheid. The novel is clearly founded in its South African context, with the author passing conscious of the fact that he is writing for an international auditory modality. He italicizes South Africanisms such as â€Å"stoep” (verandah) and â€Å"doek” (headcloth), and explains ideas that non-South Africans could not be expected to understand.For example, Peekay explains that years after his meeting with Hoppie he â€Å"discovered that the Cape commercialismtor was a wind that blew in early spring…” At the self resembling(prenominal) time, Peekays meteorite simile reveals a yearning for something much larger. The author is clearly aiming to make a universal parameter about the pointlessness of unlikeness against any aggroup of people. The introduction of a Jewish percentage, Harry Crown, discloses that discrimination works on all levels-racial, cultural, and religious.The fact that Harry Crown coins Peekays name for him is of vital importance-the author offers the lesson that people can make a difference in one anothers lives regardless of how short their period of contact. Chapter basketball team Summary Peekay wakes early and surveys the savannah outside the train window. He expresses amazement at the washbasin which Hoppie shows him, neatly stashed away beneath the compartment table. Hoppie tosses away Peekays soggy jammed food from Mevrou and insists on buying him a ripe â€Å"first class fighter” breakfast.As Hoppie lifts Peekay ou t of bed, Peekay covers his penis and apologizes to Hoppie for being a â€Å"verdomde rooinek” (a damned redneck). He expects â€Å"retribution. ” cypher happens, however, and Peekay begins to lose his fear of being an Englishman. Hoppie takes Peekay to the dining car where the lodgeer walks past and asks Hoppie the â€Å" odds” on his fight. Peekay wonders what â€Å"odds” are. He asks Hoppie whether he is frightened for the fight, eliciting another inspire lecture from Hoppie, who is a â€Å"southpaw” (left-handed boxer). Lunch arrives with on the loose(p) steaks for Hoppie and Peekay.All of the passengers chat enthusiastically about Hoppies imminent boxing bout. The waiter takes money for bets, and Hoppie has to explain what â€Å"betting” is to Peekay. Hoppie encourages Peekay to bet ten to one with his Granpas shilling. Peekay is a little unhinged since Mevrou told him only to use the shilling in emergencies. Hoppie tells Peekay thi s could be considered an emergency. In Gravelotte, Hoppie takes Peekay to his home on the railway mess. Then they go to buy new tackies for Peekay at â€Å"Patel and Son,” which is owned by an Indian man, Mr.Patel. Hoppie treats Mr. Patel and his daughterâ€whom Peekay notices as being very beautifulâ€with disdain and tries to swap Peekays large tackies for new ones. When Mr. Patel recognizes Hoppie as the famous boxer â€Å" small fry Louis” (Hoppies boxing name, taken from a black non-African boxer), he wants to return Hoppies nine pence. Hoppie tells him to give the money to Peekay instead. Mr. Patel hands Peekay a shilling. Peekay is relieved his Granpas money has strangely been restored. Mr. Patel says that he has bet ten pounds on Hoppies victory.On the way back to the railways, Hoppie tells Peekay not to address â€Å"coolies” (derogatory term for Indian or â€Å"colored” people) as â€Å"Mister. ” They head for the billiard room, where Hoppies opponent, air hammer Smit, comes swaggering towards them. He laughs at Hoppies small peak and calls him a â€Å"midget. ” Hoppie tosses back a witty definition before exiting. Peekay meets Hoppies friends Nels and Bokkie. At his home, Hoppie educates Peekay in pre-match rituals: a shower, a lie-down, and glasses of water every ten transactions (since it is deathly hot). At dinner, Hoppie introduces Peekay to people as â€Å"the next welterweight contender. Peekay remembers all that Hoppie tells him, and Hoppie marvels at Peekays perfect recall. Hoppies army forms arrive in the mailâ€he tells Peekay that he has been summoned to war. He explains that Hitler is a very bad manâ€the enemy, not the ally. Analysis The racism of whites towards non-whites in South Africa becomes clearer in Chapter Five. Peekays description of Mr. Patels daughter as wearing â€Å" limpid cloth” and having â€Å"dark and very beautiful” eyes contrasts with Hoppies rac ist description of Indians as â€Å"coolies. ” Thus, the theme of people contradicting themselves in their behavior emerges further here.While showing extreme generosity and compassion to Peekay, Hoppie shows only arrogant racism towards the Patels, and tells Peekay not to call Mr. Patel â€Å"Mister. ” Peekay thus becomes more than simply the protagonist-he becomes a moral yardstick by which we are to judge the other graphemes. Peekay shows respect and courtesy to everyone he meets. Although Peekays insight into the world remains limited and about humorous, he is fast being forced to grow up. The bildungsroman structure usually involves a series of shifts from one setting to another, with very few visits to past settings.With Peekay meet by fresh faces on a train bound for Barberton, a new town, this novel for certain continues to fulfill the bildungsroman criteria. Moreover, most readers are in the same position as Peekay-unclear of the exact expatiate of aparth eid, and without an intimate knowledge of the boxing world. When Peekay confides that he does not understand Hoppies â€Å"boxing parlance,” we share his newcomers perspective. Chapter Five offers a compeer of examples of the authors system of characterizationâ€a simple, conventional method whereby a characters name is subsequently furnished with a short physical sketch.Peekay illustrates Mr. Patels daughter, for instance, through the following description: â€Å"She was a mid brown color, her straight black hair was parted in the middle…” While the author pursues a conventional characterization method, the reader can understand his preoccupation with appearance, and particularly with skin tone. By Peekay almost pickings inventory in noticing the womans â€Å"mid brown color,” the author highlights the impossibility of categorizing people, particularly according to something as nuanced as skin color. the great unwashed should not be quantified and pi geonholed, he suggests.Yet some of the character descriptions fall into stereotypes or caricatures, contradicting this impulse. Mr. Patel, for instance, speaks in a caricatured Indian dialect, using expressions such as â€Å"very-very” and â€Å"by golly. ” much(prenominal) stereotypes suggest that the book belongs to the genre of â€Å"popular adventure. ” The characters and events, as will be seen in the rest of the novel, lack authenticity but replace it with the kind of misinform magic found in childrens queer tales. Chapter half a dozen Summary air hammer Smit, a miner, has all his fashion plate miners on his side.The miners have constructed a makeshift boxing ring on Gravelottes rugby field. All the townsfolk gather on the stands (bleachers), with the black denizens having to squat underneath and peer through the whites legs. Bokkie and Nels, Hoppies seconds, lead Hoppie and Peekay to the warm-up tent where Hoppie points out the judgeâ€a dwarfà ¢â‚¬to Peekay. jackhammer Smit is already decked out in full boxing gear-Hoppie whispers to Peeky that he is â€Å"one big sonofabitch. ” Hoppies opts to â€Å"glove up” in the boxing ring to provide more amusement for the gathering.Bokkie, following boxing etiquette, carries the gloves to jackhammer Smits seconds so that they may choose. Jackhammer and Hoppie taunt each other verbally, and Hoppie instructs Peekay: â€Å"Never forget, Peekay, sometimes, very occasionally, you do your best boxing with your mouth. ” Nels escorts Peekay away from the tent and up the stands to hulking Hettie, a large woman who chugs brandy throughout the fight and forgets to check her Irish accent when drunk. Hoppie and Jackhammer Smit enter the ring. braggart(a) Hettie hurls a curse at Jackhammer and the crowd roars with laughter. turgid Hettie calls the dwarf referee â€Å"Sparrow Fart. ” The dwarf invokes scriptural imagery, introducing the match as one between David a nd Goliath. In the first round, Hoppie lands a dozen punches to Jackhammers left eye. The second round proceeds uniformly, except that Jackhammer connects with Hoppies head three times. Rounds three to five witness Hoppie attempting to wait out Jackhammer by taunting him almost the ring. At the end of the sixth round, Jackhammers left eye is almost shut, and Hoppies ribs are red from the blows.In the sevensometh round, the foment begins to take its toll on Jackhammer-his left eye has closed. He manages to punch Hoppie right under the heart, however, and Hoppie crumples to the ground. Jackhammer refuses to move to the corner of the ring, thereby unwittingly loose Hoppie thirty seconds to recover. Hoppie manages to rise on the count of eight. Big Hettie nourishes Peekay with creamy coffee and coffee tree cake during the fight. In the eleventh round, Jackhammer purposely knocks the referee backwards so that he cannot witness him headbutting Hoppie to the ground.The railwaymen, su pporting Hoppie, cry â€Å"Foul! ” After much confusion, and outbreaks of fighting amongst the crowd, the referee decides to award Hoppie the fight on a foul. Hoppie, however, is not satisfied and calls for the fight to resume. In the fourteenth round, Jackhammer knocks Hoppie down-suddenly Hoppie rises with a punch to Jackhammers jaw, knowcking him out. A â€Å"braaivleis” (barbecue) and â€Å"tiekiedraai” (dance) follow the fight. Hoppie puts Peekay to sleep, next to Big Hettie. Analysis As the narrator matures, his voice gives the story a lyrical tone.The adult Peekay describes the maunder trees near the boxing ring with â€Å"their palomino trunks shred with strips of gray bark,” and the moths and insects which â€Å"danced about the lights, tiny planets orbiting erratically around two brilliant artificial suns. ” He uses the same lyricism to describe, almost blow by blow, the boxing match between Hoppie and Jackhammer Smit-indeed, most of Ch apter sextette is taken up with the fight itself. This foreshadows many similar lengthy fight descriptions in the following chapters: the novel becomes in part a sports novel, with Peekay taking the role of commentator.Yet The Power of One differs from other sports novels in that it raises sport to the level of an art form. Peekay uses music metaphors and similes, subtly comparing boxing to music. For example, he business lines how the referee â€Å"orchestrated” the audience to silence, and how Jackhammer Smit bangs his right fist into his left bay wreath â€Å"like a metronome. ” The incongruity of music and a thug such as Jackhammer Smit works like an intellectual conceit-that is, an outrageous comparison that makes sense only after a couple of moments of thought.In such a way, the author compels us to accept boxing as an art form. The rich boxing vocabulary-including terms such as â€Å"straight left”, â€Å"feinting”, and â€Å" clamp”-heig htens Peekays storytelling power. This contrasts with Big Hetties crude, yet hilarious commentary-she calls the dwarf referee â€Å"Sparrow Fart” and does not listen to a word Peekay says. The fact that the referee is a dwarf, and Big Hettie is partly Irish, adds to the already colorful human landscape of the novel-once again, the author forces us to recall the many types of differences between human beings.Hoppies victory over Jackhammer is an weighty plot moment for the young protagonist Peekay since it gives him the faith that â€Å"small” can prevail over â€Å"large. ” He admits to the reader that â€Å"Big, it seemed to me, always finished on top …” The battle between small and large takes on a new dimension in Chapter half dozen: Hoppie teaches Peekay the necessity of strategy, of tactics. His main advice to Peekay is â€Å"First with the head, then with the heart,” an aphorism which Peekay never forgets. Peekay must change his own theme from the battle between small and large to the struggle between brains and brawn.Chapter Seven Summary Peekay awakens on the train to see â€Å"koppies” (little hills) and â€Å"lowveld” (bushland) flashing by outside. He finds a letter and a ten-shilling bank line attached to the front of his shirt-it is from Hoppie. Hoppie tells Peekay that the ten-shilling note is the money Peekay won from his bet, and in the note he reminds Peekay that â€Å"Small can beat big” and â€Å"first with the head and then with the heart. ” Peekay is upset that Hoppie has disappeared from his life, but realizes that Hoppie has given him something to take away-the power of one.Peekay defines this as â€Å"one idea, one heart, one mind, one plan, one determination. ” currently Peekay notices a stench in the train compartment. He looks down from his bunk to see Big Hettie, fully dressed, sprawled on the bed below â€Å"like a beached sperm whale. ” She r eeks of brandy. When Peekay returns from the toilets, he finds that Big Hettie has half-collapsed onto the floor, with her dress over her ears. Peekay restores her to a normal position by fault her legs onto the ground. Big Hettie belches in reply and Peekay exclaims â€Å"Boy, did she stink! The conductor, Pik Botha, arrives and gives a melodramatic lament when he realizes that Big Hettie is on his train. He gets even angrier when he discovers that Peekays ticket is not clipped, and he blames it on Hoppie. Peekay pleads for Hoppie and succeeds. Pik Botha takes Peekay to breakfast, where the boy meets Hennie Venter, a waiter. When they return to the compartment, Bothaâ€a born-again Christianâ€tells Peekay that Hettie is a â€Å"good example of Gods terrible vengeance. ” Hettie, however, wakes up to defend herself, calling Botha a â€Å"self- righteous little shit. She sends Peekay to pull in water for her. Peekay returns, and looks after Hettie by cooling her chest with a damp cloth. Hettie orders Botha to engineer a way to get her out of the compartment since she cannot get up. As Botha attempts to climb over Hettie to get a grasp on her, Hettie belches and Botha falls on top of her. Hettie begins to laugh and Peekay realizes that they are â€Å"in a real pickle. ” They try a different tactic, with both Botha and Peekay pulling. Peekay loses his grip, however, and falls into Bothas crotch, causing him enormous put out in his waterworks. ” They give up for the moment, and Hettie orders a profuse breakfast for herself and Peekay from Hennie. Peekay, not hungry, gives his helping to Hettie, who scoffs everything. While Hettie eats, she tells Peekay that Hoppie could have been a famous boxer if it were not for the fact that he does not know how to hate. Peekay decides that he needs to learn how to hate. Hettie also tells Peekay about her love engagement with a flyweight, who used to beat her up because he could not beat up his opp onents. He died of a brain hemorrhage, during a match.Peekay watches Hettie binge herself on food all day, and intuitively realizes that he is witnessing â€Å"a unhealthiness or a sadness or even both. ” Hettie cries for herself, and Peekay comforts her. That afternoon the train arrives at the Kaapmuiden station. The railwaymen have to employ monkey wrenches to try to get Hettie out of the compartment. After telling Peekay she has faith in his become a great boxer, she dies quietly. Analysis In Chapter Seven, Peekay takes a detour, describing the tragicomic events that occur on his train move between the towns of Gravelotte and Kaapmuiden.Big Hettie is representative of the â€Å"passing characters” pattern in the novel-some characters remain, while others coexist only briefly with Peekay. As with Hoppie, Peekay takes something away from Big Hettie. He learns about experience and courage. Peekay is learning how to absorb the essence of other people, how to remembe r what they say. Thus, â€Å"the power of one” does not refer to an individual sentiment, but rather to an all-encompassing notion, which acknowledges that the individual is do by all those people who pass through his life, whether for a brief or lengthy time.Peekay describes the events of the novel with humor and compassion; events are often both funny and sad. Big Hettie becomes one of the novels caricatured, burlesque characters, and this chapter could almost be called a tribute to her. Chapter Seven thus deviates from the overarching plot. Hoppies letter to Peekay, included at the beginning of the chapter, also works to disrupt the neat, narrative flow and-as Peekays first letter (and wager won)-it acts as a kind of mark of initiation into a more adult world.The â€Å"toilet humor” apparent in this chapter (Big Hetties belches, for example) not only works as part of the burlesque, but constructs an invisible hierarchy amongst the characters- proximity to bodily C hapter eight Summary The train arrives at Barberton station late at night. Hennie Venter says farewell to Peekay and promises to tell Hoppie that Peekay â€Å"behaved like a proper Boer, a real white man. ” Peekay does not recognize anyone on the platform and so he sits silently crying, longing for his nanny to arrive and sweep him up. Then he notices a maam approaching.She calls him her â€Å"darling” and holds her against her bony body. Peekay realizes that it is his baffle. When Peekay asks her where his nanny is, she simply says that he is too old for a nanny and hurries him out to a car where a certain minister of religion Mulvery is waiting to take them home to Granpa. Peekays suffer and government minister Mulvery spend the car ride home value the Lords precious name. Peekays mother intimates that he must become a born-again Christian at the apostolic Faith Mission, and Pastor Mulvery says they are on their way to meeting the Lord.Peekay asks if they can meet the Lord the following dayâ€he is too exhausted that night. They both laugh. Peekay longs for the continuation of his past life on the farm. He discovers, fortunately, that the new house has exactly the same article of furniture as the farmhouse. He surveys the scene: the grandfather clock, the stuffed kudu head, the painting of the Rourkes Drift massacre, the zebra skin. Peekays Granpa enters the room and Peekay notices that he remains unchanged too. Only the kettle in the kitchen looks â€Å"new and temporary. ” Peekay resolves to question his Granpa about nannys whereabouts the following day.In the dawn he explores the back garden, which he finds full of gobushesâ€he observes that â€Å"the garden looked like the sort of tunnel Alice might well have found in Wonderland. ” Beyond the fences touch the garden, Peekay notices plants of a wilder nature-quince, guava, orange, lemon, avocado, poinsettia, and aloe. He decides to explore and, before he realizes , he has climbed high up the hill. Compared to the African bush, the uprise garden looks â€Å"tizzy and contrived as a painting on a chocolate box. ” He surveys the town of Barberton from above, and then joins his Granpa in the rose garden.When he asks where his nanny is, his Granpa slowly puffs on his call and tells Peekay a cryptic story about his grandmother, for whom he says Africa was too severe. Then he tells Peekay to ask his mother about nanny. Returning to the house, Peekay is reunited with the twin kitchen maids Dum and Dee, who tell him that Nanny is still resilient. They also explain to Peekay that his mother has become a seamstress. When Peekay finally confronts his mother about Nanny, his mother tells him that she returned to Zululand because she refused to remove her â€Å"heathen charms and amulets. Peekay shouts that the Lord is a â€Å" blockhead” and runs through the â€Å"Alice in Wonderland tunnels” until he reaches the hill. The eggs of the solitariness birds are crushed into powder inside him and, in a moment, he grows up. Analysis Chapter Eight contrasts the prior two chapters (which cover Peekays temporary adventures on the train home) by introducing Peekay and the reader to his new permanent place, Barberton. He has to deal with the prospect of a life with his returned mother and her religious fanaticism. He desperately searches for continuity and finds that his Granpa, Dum, and Dee are his only constants.While Peekays experiences keep shifting from one backdrop to another, his method of narration is not disrupted, but is conventional and linear. Occasionally, he reminisces about past events, but for the most part he moves forward chronologically. You may ask how a six-year-old could think like this. I can only answer that one did. The reader finds continuity in the story itself through the recurring motif of the loneliness birds, whose eggs transform to dust at the close of Chapter Eight. This shift is significant, and Peekay observes that, suddenly, he has grown up.He ends the chapter by addressing the reader directly. He specifically addresses the readers skepticism. It may seem juiceless that at the same moment that Peekay announces his burst into the adult world, he confronts the readers adult rationality. However, as the novel unfolds, it will become apparent that Peekay possesses a special manner of combining adult logic and rationality with a childlike appreciation for the magic and mystery of the world. The literary allusions to Lewis Carrolls novel Alice in Wonderland highlight this belief in magic.It is no accident that the names of the kitchen maids are â€Å"Dum” and â€Å"Dee,” reverberating of the Carrolls characters Tweedledum and Tweedledee (Peekay presumably provided these nicknames for them in his youth). Not only does Peekay knowledge to grow up in this chapter, but for the first time he truly begins to grapple with the concept of â€Å"Africaà ¢â‚¬Â and his place in it. With his simile comparing his Granpas rose garden to a chocolate box picture, Peekay consigns the garden to symbolic status-he sees the cultivated garden as a symbol of Englishness.The epithets he uses to describe the garden- â€Å"tizzy” and â€Å"sentimental”-suggest that he wishes to repudiate this part of his identity and allow himself to be entranced by the wild, untamed African land. Chapter Nine Summary While Peekay sits on a rock on the hillside, surveying Barberton, a very tall and thin man with a camera introduces himself as Professor von Vollensteen. He tells Peekay that he could not resist taking a photograph of him as he sat on the rock. He asks for Peekays authority to call it â€Å"Boy on a Rock. ” Peekay notices that the prof is carrying a cactus in his canvas backsack.He asks why the cactus is not pricking the professor, and the old man promises to reveal the secret. He takes the cactus from his bag and introduces it to Peekay as â€Å"Euphorbia grandicornis… a very shy cactus. ” He shows Peekay that his backsack is made of leather, protecting his back from the cactus prickles. Peekay says that he could have worked that out for himself, and the professor calls him a â€Å"schmarty pants. ” He asks Peekay whether he knows what a professor is, and Peekay has to admit that he does not know. Suddenly the professor notices a rare aloe under the sock on which Peekay is sitting, and yelps â€Å"Wunderbar! Peekay reminds him that he has not yet explained the word â€Å"professor. ” The man replies, â€Å"‘A professor is a person who drinks too much whisky and once plays goot Beethoven. ‘” Then he tells Peekay that he can call him â€Å" physician” instead of â€Å"Professor. ” atomic number 101 and Peekay part ways and Peekay returns home, to a dismal Dum and Dee. Cowering, they tell him that his mother wants to see him. Peekay does not fe el s heraldic bearingd-his mother does not realize that he is a â€Å" ex-serviceman of interrogation and punishment. ” Peekays mother makes him apologize to her, then breaks down into tears of self-pity.At this, Peekay feels relieved because he is more disposed to this side of his mother. He tells her to lie down, and brings her some tea and an Aspro. Two days later, Peekay sits watching army trucks change with soldiers passing by the house when commercialism arrives. medico greets Peekay warmly and says that he wishes to speak to his mother-he has brought an aloe and the photograph of Peekay as presents for her. doc discovers, to his horror, that medico is a German. medical student tells Peekays mother that he believes her son is a genius and he wishes to give him music lessons. At first she resists, since she does not accept charity from anyone. mendelevium eventually convinces her by say that in return for the lessons he requires Peekay to work for him, compile ca cti. Peekays mother now agrees- having a son apt in Hellenic music will be a status symbol for her, a â€Å"social equalizer. â€Å"The summer months pass and Peekay spends the majority of his time with medico, roaming the Barberton â€Å"kloofs” (cliffs) aggregation cacti. Doc teaches Peekay â€Å"the priceless lesson of identification. ” He teaches Peekay how to observe, how to listen to himself, and how to use his brain for both original thought and as a â€Å"reference library” for storing information.Doc supplements Peekays outdoors education with morning piano lessons, and frequent trips to the Barberton library, run by Mrs. Boxall. Peekay soon realizes that he is competent but not a gifted musician. His mother, however, is delighted when Peekay stuns all the Barberton citizens at the bi-annual cultural concert by playing Chopin. The Afrikaners leave the concert when all the English people begin singing â€Å"White Cliffs of Dover. ” Peekay ex plains the close relationship between the Boers and the Germans, who gave the Boers assistance during the Boer War. AnalysisDoc, or Professor von Vollensteen, helps Peekay to counter generalizations about Germans. Peekay is at first shocked since he associates all Germans with Hitlers Nazi party. Chapter Nine shows some stylistic deviations from former chapters by Peekays deviations into historical descriptions. At the conclusion of the chapter, he provides the reader with a lengthy description of the close relationship that developed between the Germans and the Boers during the Boer War. In such a way, he starts to educate the reader-he does not make allusions to historical events; he explains them.This results in the novel being self-containedâ€one does not have to undertake much external research in order to understand its context. Perhaps the author is suggesting that the very notion of history and historical recording is at wager in this time period. History cannot be ta ken for granted, and history text books cannot be trusted. By taking Peekay under his tutelage, Doc becomes the next of Peekays string of mentors. Docs character introduces a couple of new vocabulary sets into the novel-that of Latin cacti names, and that of his quirky half-German half- invented dialect.He uses nonsense terms such as â€Å"absoloodle,” and German exclamations such as â€Å"wunderbar. ” Doc is a caricatured character (he occupies the space of a kind of fairy godfather), who becomes a foil to Peekays Granpa-the latter confines himself to the preened, meted world of his rose garden, while the former exposes himself to the dangerous, exciting life of cacti and aloes. Although Peekay now has his mother and Granpa with him, there exists a flagrant absence of anyone playing a truly enatic role in his life.Doc fills this role. Instead of caring for her son, Peekays mother neglects him in favor of the Lord, and Peekay in fact plays the role of parent to her. Peekay subtly underscores his mothers hypocrisy-while subscribing to the Lord as the only avatar of morality and modesty, she reveres the status that Peekays skill at classical piano affords her. Chapter Nine demonstrates a distinct method in Peekays narrative style: he begins to provide the reader with recaps, or summaries, of events that have already happened.For example, he recapitulates the events of Chapter Eight and the beginning of Chapter Nine as follows: â€Å"The loneliness birds had flown away and I had grown up and made a new friend called Doc and had learned several new things. ” The abundance of the arrange conjunction â€Å"and” stresses Peekays eagerness to tally these occasions-the effect is one of insistence and continuity. The reader can almost hear the tremble in Peekays voice. The older narrator-Peekay reminds the reader that the younger Peekay has to hold on to the constants in his life-even the loneliness birds have become a constant.The reader senses Peekays need to afford his life story-it is not a self- aggrandizing process, but a way in which he can describe the uncertainties of his past. Indeed, the chapter concludes with the adult Peekay foreshadowing the loss of Doc from his life. Chapter 10 Summary Peekay skips two classes at the local school. Doc has convinced him that he should drop his camouflage and reveal his intelligence. Doc is Peekays true teacher. When around Doc, Peekay says that his brain is forever â€Å"hungry. ” As in the summer months, Peekay arrives shortly after dawn each day for his music lesson with Doc.Docs eyes are often bloodshot and he tells Peekay that the â€Å"wolves were holler” in his head the previous night-his euphemism for being drunk. Docs greyback pedestrian whisky bottles border the path in Docs cactus garden. One Saturday afternoon in January 1941, Doc and Peekay are working in the garden when Peekay notices a military police van draw up. An mathematical fun ctionr and a sergeant emerge and, smoking cigarettes, they wait for Doc and Peekay to approach. Then the sergeant arrests Doc under the Aliens do work of 1939. Doc does not resist but instead sadly tells Peekay that he now must care for the cactus garden.Then Doc asks permission to shave and make a change of clothing before leaving for Barberton prison. Peekay brings jugs of water for Doc to wash. Peekay helps Doc to pack, and slips a half-bottle of Johnny Walker into Docs bag. The sergeant finds the whisky in the bag and wants to share it with Doc, but Doc refuses to drink. The sergeant drinks part of the whisky then pours the rest onto Docs beloved Steinway piano. Doc smacks the sergeants carpus with his travel stick, and the sergeant calls him a â€Å"fucking Nazi bastard” and a â€Å"child fucker. ” Doc, however, is already walking towards the military van.The sergeant runs after him and handcuffs him, then kicks Docs legs so that he collapses onto his knees. Pe ekay runs after Doc, screaming, and tries to throw his arms around Docs legs. As he leaps, the sergeants kick intended for Docs ribcage connects with Peekays face and knocks him unconscious. Peekay regains consciousness in Barberton hospital, terribly hard-pressed about Doc. The boys jaw has been unkept, making it impossible for him to speak. A 15- year-old nurse with acne, Marie, looks after Peekay and calls him her â€Å"skattebol” (fluffball).She tells Peekay that he has become a town hero for trying to restrain a â€Å"German spy. ” Peekays mother and Pastor Mulvery visit him often, and continue their attempts to proselytize him. Peekay remembers Docs version of God-a force too work training bees to fuss with silly humans. Peekays mother calls Doc an â€Å"evil man” who attempted to kill him. Peekay exhaust with frustration-he is the only one who knows the truth but he is unable to speak up to defend Doc. He writes to Mrs. Boxall asking her to visit him a s soon as possible. Marie eventually agrees to convey the letter on Peekays behalf. While waiting for Mrs.Boxall, Peekay writes a long letter explaining the details of Docs arrest. Mrs. Boxall expresses delight at Peekays testimony and exclaims that it has arrived just in time-the military court is about to put Doc on trial. She shows Peekay the front page of their local newspaper, The goldfields News. The picture Doc took of Peekay on the rock is headlined with the words â€Å"THE BOY HE TRIED TO KILL! â€Å"Peekay receives a letter from Mrs. Boxallâ€she has shown his testimony to Mr. Andrews, the lawyer, but he has said that the piece is so sophisticated that no one will believe that a seven-year-old wrote it.Marie, the only person who can understand Peekays garble through his broken jaw, is thus commissioned to be his interpreter. Peekay, Marie, Mrs. Boxall, and Mr. Andrews arrive at the magistrate Colonel de Villiers office. Marie takes a while to find her voice, but Peekay manages to prove that he wrote the statement by writing down the names of various Latin succulents. They win the case, but Doc has to remain in prison since he did not register as a contradictory alien when he arrived in South Africa fifteen years previously. Peekay visits Doc in prison and meets Klipkop (Johannes Oudendaal) and deputy Smit.Klipkop tells Peekay that he is a boxer, and Peekay begs him to give him lessons. He tells Klipkop he has to become the welterweight champion of the world. Klipkop says that he is too young-the youngest trainee in their boxing prison squad is ten years old. Peekay watches as Klipkop brutally beats one of the black prison servants, accusing him of stealing some biscuits. Smit watches quietly, then tells Klipkop afterwards that he was the one who ate the biscuits. The men take Peekay to meet Kommandant van Zyl, who tells Peekay to inform Mrs.Boxall of a surprise he has for the townspeople the following Monday, in the town square. Peekay asks the kommandant if he can box with their squad. Smit is wild with Peekay afterwards. However, Peekay has realized that Jackhammer Smit is Lieutenant Smits brother. When he refers to the Gravelotte fight, Smits eyes begin to shine and he accepts Peekay into the squad. Peekay is forbidden from boxing for two yearsâ€he may only do technique training. Eventually Peekay gets to see Doc. Doc tells Peekay the â€Å"surprise” on Monday is a very pillock thing.He tells Peekay to meet him in his cactus garden at noon that day, and to find Beethovens Symphony Number Five in his piano stool, as well as what is above the sheet music (his whisky). Mrs. Boxall becomes very excited when Peekay relays this news to herâ€she says Doc is to give a concert. On Monday Smit and Klipkop fetch the Steinway from Docs house. They introduce Peekay to another warder, Gert Marais. Gert, an Afrikaner who does not speak English, cannot understand Doc and Peekays conversation. Doc tells Peekay that he doe s not want to give the concert-he has not performed for sixteen years.However, the prison warders will not allow Peekay to visit him if he refuses. Doc tells Peekay of his musical history-he describes the disastrous concert of 1925 in Berlin where, playing Beethovens Symphony Number Five, he froze up. As the mayor is introducing Doc in the Barberton town square, a fight breaks out between the English and the Afrikaners. Doc, trembling, takes a swig of whisky and begins to play. The crowd immediately quiets and is captivated by the music. Doc plays beautifully and Peekay has never seen him so happy. AnalysisChapter Ten is one of the novels longest chapters, taking up almost a tenth of the novel. It carries through on Peekays foreshadowing at the end of Chapter Nine-the loss of Doc and, in a sense, the loss of his childhood. For the first time in his life, at a mere seven years of age, Peekay must confront military and legal institutions-not as a peripheral visitor, but as an eye- wit ness of Docs arrest and thus as an insider. Peekay militia his own critical judgment of the cruel events he experiences (Docs arrest, Klipkops brutal treatment of the black prison servant) in order to allow the reader to draw her own conclusions.Peekay takes on the role of objective reporter or observer in these situations. However, he hints that his reserved behavior does not stem from disinterestednessâ€he realizes that survival in these settings depends on being diplomatic. Neither does the adult narrator withhold critique of the immorality of the prison world-his tone, often earnest, becomes ironic in his descriptions of the prison staff. After describing the office of the kommandant, with its stuffed gemsbok, eland, steenbok, and springbok heads, the narrator illustrates the kommandant himself, who claims to love wild animals.The narrators precise descriptionsâ€including, for example, the names of all the different kinds of buck on the kommandants wallsâ€stress the ef fect Doc has had on Peekay. Doc has taught Peekay how to observe, analyze, record. These skills will be vital to Peekays success and survival throughout the novel. There are other reasons why it is sensible for the narrator to unleash his criticism of the harsh, racist behavior in South Africa in a subtle, rather than direct manner. Firstly, The Power of One was compose at a time when apartheid was still alive in South Africa.The author himself has to take a diplomatic tone. Secondly, the author does not wish readers to see the South African struggle as one between good and evil forces †he paints the prison staff as humans, not monsters. They have deliver qualities. Klipkop, Lieutenant Smit, and Kommandant van Zyl are all extremely kind to Peekay. The officers who arrest Doc take a moment to have a cigarette. It is a human moment before their violent treatment of Doc. Moreover, Docs ability to halt the brawling in the town square, with his beautiful rendering of Beethoven, su ggests the triumph of our shared humanity.The chapter ends on an optimistic note when it intimates that a universal spirit holds us all together in spite of our myriad differences. This tone of optimism emerges as the novels distinguishing tone. In spite of Peekays portrayal of crude or violent behavior, his faith in the notion of â€Å"the power of one” lingers. Chapter Eleven Summary Dee and Dum wake Peekay every morning with coffee and a twice-baked bread (a hard biscuit) and he heads to the prison for boxing lessons and then his piano lesson with Doc. The prison staff allows these lessons to proceed since they enjoy the social status afforded by having two classical musicians in their midst.Doc does not understand Peekays need to box, but he assists Peekay with â€Å"musical analogies. ” He says that in music, as in boxing, exercises make up ones foundation. Peekays visits are so constant that he becomes part of the prison â€Å"shadow world. â€Å"Peekay become s friends with Gert Marais, the Afrikaans warder. Gert fixes the boxing speedball so that it is low enough for Peekay\r\n'